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                                                                  NIC 50003


                               DECEMBER 1985


                               DECEMBER 1985

                            Stephen C. Dennett
                           Elizabeth J. Feinler
                             Francine Perillo

Additional copies of this document may be obtained from the DDN Network
Information Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Room EJ291,
Menlo Park, CA 94025, or from the Defense Technical Information Center
(DTIC), Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314.

UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.  TELENET is a
registered trademark of GTE.  TYMNET is a registered trademark of TYMNET
Inc., a subsidiary of McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

ARPANET Information Brochure.  Printed and bound in the United States of
America.  Published by the DDN Network Information Center, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA 94025.

                            Date: December 1985

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   III

ABSTRACT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     V

SECTION 1.  INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
          1.1.  How To Use This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1

SECTION 2.  ARPANET MANAGEMENT AND POLICIES  . . . . . . . . . . . .      3
          2.1.  What is the ARPANET?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3
          2.2.  Management of the ARPANET  . . . . . . . . . . . . .      3
          2.2.1.  DARPA/IPTO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3
          2.2.2.  DDN PMO Responsibilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3
          2.2.3.  IAB Responsibilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3
          2.3.  ARPANET Access and Use Policies  . . . . . . . . . .      4
          2.3.1.  Host Access Controls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     4
          2.3.2.  TAC Access Controls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      4

SECTION 3.  SUBSCRIBER ACCESS PROCEDURES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
          3.1.  Process Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
          3.1.1.  Feeder TSRs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      6
          3.2.  Backbone Hardware Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . .     6
          3.2.1.  Types of Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     6
          3.2.2.  Equipment Procurement and Costs  . . . . . . . . .      6
          3.2.3.  PSN Port Assignment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7
          3.3.  TAC Connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.4.  Registration Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7
          3.4.1.  Host Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7
          3.4.2.  Host Addresses and Domains  . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.4.3.  LAN and Gateway Registration  . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.4.4.  User Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7
  NIC Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . .      7
  NIC REGISTER Program  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     8
          3.4.5.  ARPANET TAC Access Registration  . . . . . . . . .      8

SECTION 4.  ARPANET PROTOCOLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      9
          4.1.  DDN Protocol Handbook  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      9
          4.2.  TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide  . . . . . .     9
          4.3.  RFCs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     9

          5.1.  Subscriber Software and Hardware Modification
              Requests                                                   11
          5.2.  ARPANET Software/Node Modification Procedures  . . .     11

SECTION 6.  NETWORK INFORMATION SERVICES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
          6.1.  DDN Network Information Center  . . . . . . . . . . .    13
          6.1.1.  User Assistance Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
          6.1.2.  NIC Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    14
          6.1.3.  Online Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    14
  TACNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  WHOIS/NICNAME  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  Host Name Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    14
          6.1.4.  Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
          6.1.5.  Online Files  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    15
          6.2.  ARPANET Network Monitoring Center  . . . . . . . . .     15
          6.2.1.  AMC Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    15
          6.3.  Complaint Center/Unsatisfactory Service Reports  . .     15

SECTION 7.  KEY CONTACTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
          7.1.  DDN PMO Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
          7.2.  DARPA Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
          7.3.  Contacts for Specific Services  . . . . . . . . . . .    17

SECTION 8.  REFERENCES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    19
          8.1.  Cited References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    19
          8.2.  Additional References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     19

SECTION 9.  GLOSSARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    21

APPENDIX.    SITE PERSONNEL DUTIES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    23


The ARPANET Information Brochure was prepared by the DDN Network
Information Center (NIC) for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
and the Defense Data Network Program Management Office of the Defense
Communications Agency under contract number DCA-200-83-C-0025.

The NIC wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance of Lt. Col. Bob
E. Baker of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Andrew Hogan of
the Defense Data Network Program Management Office, and Alan Hill of BBN
Communications Corporation in the preparation of this document.


The ARPANET is an unclassified, packet-switched data network originally
built by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and used for
Department of Defense computer science and networking research.  It is now
one of the subnetworks of the Defense Data Network (DDN) and, as such, is
managed by the Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO).
Policy for the ARPANET is established by DARPA and they also decide who may
become subscribers.  Subscribers are required to follow certain technical
and administrative procedures to connect host computers or other equipment
to the DDN.  This document describes these procedures as they apply to the
ARPANET, provides background and technical information on the ARPANET, and
suggests sources of further information on protocol implementations and
interface equipment.


The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) may require its
contractors or associated researchers to become ARPANET "subscribers"
(sites which have host computers or other equipment connected to the
network).  In such cases DARPA requests authorization from the Defense Data
Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO) to add the required equipment
to the network.

This document describes the steps necessary for potential subscribers to
attach host computers or other equipment to the ARPANET.  Administrative
and technical procedures are included.  References to documents and
services, which will be helpful during the process of connecting equipment
to the network, are also included and are designated by the number of the
reference in brackets, e.g. [1].

1.1  How To Use This Document

Section 1, the Introduction, explains how this document is organized.

Section 2 provides background on the ARPANET, describes the current
management structure, and states the criteria for becoming a subscriber.

Section 3 presents the administrative and technical procedures necessary to
bring a host onto the ARPANET.  Different types of network connections and
associated costs are described.

Section 4 discusses the protocols used on the ARPANET and the DDN, and
tells how protocol implementations and documentation may be obtained.

Section 5 describes the administrative procedures required for requesting
modifications of network software or hardware.

Sections 6 and 7 describe the services and personnel available to help with
the process of connecting equipment to the ARPANET and with using the

Section 8, References, contains citations and sources for publications
which provide further useful information.  This section explains how to
obtain both hardcopy and online documents.

Finally, the Appendix contains important information on the duties assigned
to local network representatives.
Comments or suggestions for improvements to the document are welcome.  Send
these by U.S. mail using the Comments Form at the end of the document or
through network mail to: SUGGESTIONS@SRI-NIC.ARPA.


This section presents background on how the ARPANET evolved into what it is
today, and how it is currently managed.

2.1  What is the ARPANET?

The ARPANET began as an experimental packet-switched host-to-host network
in late 1969.  It was funded through a research and development program
sponsored by DARPA.  The goal of the program was to advance the
state-of-the-art in computer networking.  The resultant network
successfully provided efficient communications between heterogeneous
computers, allowing convenient sharing of hardware, software, and data
resources among a varied community of geographically-dispersed users.

            Figure 2-1:   Hardware and Configuration of the DDN

In 1982 the DDN was created.  The DDN uses ARPANET technology to link
existing and planned Department of Defense (DoD) networks.  It is composed
of several operational, resource sharing, host-to-host networks which are
linked by controlled gateways, and which serve DoD facilities and non-DoD
research centers in the United States, Pacific, and European areas.  All of
the networks that make up the DDN share the same "backbone" of node
computers.  (See Figure 2-1 for a pictorial overview of the network
hardware and configuration).  Node computers are interconnected through a
set of communications protocols referred to as the DoD Internet Protocol

In 1983, the existing ARPANET was administratively divided into two
unclassified networks, ARPANET and MILNET, to meet the growing need for an
unclassified operational military network as well as the need for a
research and development network.  The physical split into separate
networks was completed in September 1984.  Each network now has its own
backbone, and is interconnected through controlled gateways to the other.
The ARPANET serves primarily as an experimental research and development
network, while the MILNET functions as an operational military network for
non-classified traffic.  Communication and resource sharing between them
continue, but are subject to administrative restrictions.

2.2  Management of the ARPANET

The DDN, including ARPANET, is operated for the DoD by the Defense
Communications Agency DDN PMO.  For an overview of the management structure
for ARPANET, see Figure 2-2.

                          |                                 |
                         DCA                              DARPA
                          |                                 |
                       DDN PMO                            IPTO
                          |                                 |
              (operational management)         (administration, policy)
                     (security)                 (configuration, access)
                          |________________ ________________|

                  Figure 2-2:   Management of the ARPANET


DARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) is dedicated to
developing advanced information processing and computer communications
technologies for critical military and national security applications.  The
building of the ARPANET and development of its protocols was an IPTO
program, which has evolved into what is now known as the Internet Research

Through IPTO, DARPA sets policy for, and manages use of, the ARPANET.  This
is done within broad guidelines established for all DDN networks by the DDN
PMO.  It also funds the ARPANET, and funds research carried out on the
ARPANET.  Since there have been recent changes, it is important to
reiterate that the DDN PMO operates and manages the ARPANET, including the
node software and hardware, while DARPA pays the backbone operating costs,
sets policy for the ARPANET, and approves access for DARPA-sponsored

2.2.2  DDN PMO Responsibilities

The DDN PMO is responsible for overall management, operations, and policy
guidelines for the entire DDN.  It assists new subscribers in connecting
hosts and related equipment to the DDN, and manages the ARPANET on behalf
of DARPA.  The DDN PMO provides many services to network users and
potential network subscribers, including:

   - Keeping the network up and running

   - Providing users with assistance

   - Planning for growth

   - Providing configuration management and control

   - Assisting with protocol implementation and testing

   - Advising subscribers on the selection of interface equipment and

   - Managing access control and security for the network backbone

   - Designating local host and node representatives

   - Arranging for all equipment required to establish a network

   - Providing technical management of contracts for services,
     equipment, and software obtained from outside corporations and

The Data Operations Division, Code B650, of the DDN PMO manages all DDN
networks, including the ARPANET.  For each DDN network, a PMO staff member
has been designated as the primary "point of contact" (POC).  All
operational questions should be referred to this POC.  (See Section 7 for
the phone number and mailbox of the ARPANET POC).  The Data Operations
Division is also responsible for coordinating operational matters within
the DDN PMO itself, as well as with other branches and divisions of the DCA
and with DARPA.

2.2.3  IAB Responsibilities

The DARPA Internet Research Program is directed by DARPA IPTO with the
assistance of an Internet Advisory Board (IAB) and a set of IPTO-appointed
Task Forces (technical working committees).  The IAB consists of the
chairmen of the Task Forces, the DARPA Program Manager, the Chairman of the
IAB (the Internet Architect), the Deputy Chairman, and the Secretary of the

The IAB guides and reviews the work of the Task Forces, and ensures proper
cross communication among them.  The IAB may from time to time create new,
or disband existing, Task Forces.

The Task Forces are expected to generate and develop new ideas, to monitor
the technical work of the Internet program, and to recommend additional
research activity.  The role of the Task Forces is seminal and advisory,
and very important to the advancement of the research goals of the Internet

Members of each Task Force are chosen by its chairman, and they are
expected to make a moderate commitment of time to the work of the Task
Force.  Most Task Forces also have mailing lists for persons interested in
following the work of a given Task Force.  Current Task Forces and chairmen

     Task Force                      Chairman       Organization(See Glossa
     Applications                    Bob Thomas     BBNCC
     Gateway Algorithms and Data Structures         Dave Mills             
     Interoperability and Autonomous Systems        Robert Cole
     New End to End Services         Bob Braden     UCLA
     Privacy                         Steve Kent     BBNCC
     Robustness and Survivability    Jim Mathis     SRI
     Security                        Ray McFarland  DOD
     Tactical Internetting           David Hartmann MITRE
     Testing                         Ed Cain        DCEC
IAB officers are:

     Position                        Occupant       Organization
     Internet Architect              Dave Clark     MIT
     Deputy Internet Architect       Jon Postel     ISI
     DARPA Program Manager           Dennis Perry   DARPA
     IAB Secretary                   Chris Perry    MITRE

Phone numbers for IAB members are available through DARPA.

2.3  ARPANET Access and Use Policies

DARPA and the DDN PMO have set broad guidelines for ARPANET access and use,
administered locally by volunteer site personnel called Host
Administrators.  Legitimate ARPANET users must be engaged in U.S.
government business or research, or directly involved in providing
operations or system support for government-owned or government-sponsored
computer communications equipment.  The network is not available for use by
the general public, nor is it intended to compete with comparable
commercial network services.

The purpose of the ARPANET is to provide a facility for advanced
packet-switched communications technologies research and experimental
communication support of government-sponsored university computer science
research.  Consequently, access to, and use of, ARPANET will not be
authorized to support operational (as opposed to experimental)
communication requirements.  Such operational facilities are provided for
DoD users by the DDN, and for others by public and private packet-switched
networks (such as TYMNET or TELENET).

Users of ARPANET may only use the network to conduct the official business
for which their access was authorized.  They must not violate privacy or
any other applicable laws, and must not use the network for private gain or
for commercial purposes, such as advertising or recruiting.  ARPANET users
may connect to other DDN networks only when approved by the DDN PMO on a
host-by-host basis.

Host site personnel are responsible for developing and enforcing specific
policies to ensure that these guidelines are followed.  (See the Appendix
for a formal statement of site personnel responsibilities).  The Host
Administrator is given the authority to disallow access to the ARPANET by
users who use the network irresponsibly or for unauthorized purposes.  The
DDN PMO assumes this authority only in an emergency, or if administration
at the local level is not functioning.

2.3.1  Host Access Controls

Subscribers and sponsors are responsible for letting only authorized users
have network privileges.  All non-government users should be associated
with a valid contract number, or have explicit permission to use the
ARPANET.  Additionally, host sites must maintain these controls:

   - Procedures that allow only valid users to obtain accounts on
     government-owned computers or to obtain access to the ARPANET
     backbone from the host

   - Login Name/Password so that only valid users can access the host

   - Periodic Reviews of users so that persons who no longer need
     ARPANET access are denied such access and unused accounts are

Any attempts to break into a system from the network should be reported by
the Host Administrator to the DDN PMO and DARPA by telephone or U.S. mail.

When violations of the above policies are observed, DCA will notify the
site personnel.  If the problem is not corrected within a reasonable time,
DCA may exercise the option of disconnecting the host or terminal from the

2.3.2  TAC Access Controls

A Terminal Access Controller (TAC) is a computer system attached directly
to the DDN that lets a user at a terminal connect to hosts on the network
without first going through a local host.  (See Section 3.3 for a
description of a TAC connection).

ARPANET users must be authorized for network TAC access by a
DARPA-appointed network contact known as a "Responsible Person" (RP).  An
RP is a person in a position of authority within each organization
authorized to use the ARPANET.  The RP is responsible for ensuring that TAC
access to the ARPANET is only allowed for those members of his organization
with a valid requirement for such access.  The RP, or his delegate, sees
that TAC users are entered into the ARPANET TAC User Database (UDB)
accessible through the network.  The RP uses the UDB to generate a "USER
ID" and an "ACCESS CODE" for each user.

The User Database is downloaded regularly to several "login hosts"
throughout the ARPANET.  These hosts verify authorized use at the time a
user logs in to a TAC.  When an ARPANET TAC user tries to open a connection
to a host from a TAC, the TAC requests a USER ID and ACCESS CODE, then
interacts with a login host to validate the user.  If the login host
reports that the USER ID/ACCESS CODE is invalid, the TAC prints an error
message and refuses to open a connection.  Access is thus restricted to
users whose names have been entered into the user database.

MILNET, the DoD's operational military network which shares the DDN
backbone with ARPANET, also contains TACs and has a system of registering
MILNET TAC users.  Although these registration systems serve the same
purpose, they are different in operation, and are physically and
administratively completely independent from each other.  A user authorized
for access through both MILNET and ARPANET TACs must register twice, once
in each system.  Note that the login procedure itself is identical whether
the user logs in from ARPANET or MILNET.  Only the user registration
procedures are different.

Lack of local ARPANET TAC resources is not considered sufficient reason to
provide ARPANET users with MILNET TAC access and vice versa.  MILNET TACs
are provided to assist authorized users in carrying out DDN operational
tasks.  Contact the DARPA POC (see Section 7.2) if you are an authorized
ARPANET user and there is no ARPANET TAC available in your area.


This section describes how a potential ARPANET subscriber can apply for
access to the network.  It compares the different types of connections
available, and describes how terminals can access hosts through the network

     NOTE:  The entire process from application to completion may require
     over a year if installation of phone lines or node equipment is
     required.  It is important to plan ahead and let DARPA and the DDN PMO
     know what your anticipated needs are.

The process of becoming a subscriber involves several steps.  It must first
be determined that the potential subscriber has a legitimate need to access
the network and has authorization from DARPA to use the network.  Paperwork
must be submitted to authorize the DDN PMO to begin the process of ordering
all equipment required to establish a network connection.

Site personnel must arrange to lease or purchase a host computer (if one is
not already available), and to implement or procure implementations of
network protocols that will run on it.  They must also arrange for the
installation and testing of site hardware.  The sections that follow
describe these procedures in greater detail.

3.1  Process Overview

All ARPANET host connections are managed by the Packet Switching Operations
Branch, Code B652, of the DDN PMO.  The procedures for getting a host
connected to ARPANET are outlined below.

   a. Contact Code B641 of the DDN PMO, who determines whether the
      requirement qualifies for ARPANET or MILNET connection.

   b. Contact the ARPANET Coordinator in the Information Processing
      Techniques Office (IPTO) at DARPA, who will verify government
      sponsorship and will provide the required Feeder
      Telecommunications Service Request (TSR), Host Approved Form
      (HAF) and, when necessary, the Internet Protocol Network Number
      Request Form.

   c. Submit the filled-in Telecommunications Service Request (TSR)
      forms to DARPA for approval and subsequent forwarding to Code
      B643 and Code B652 of the DDN PMO.

   d. The TSR is issued by the DDN PMO.  The requester receives a
      hardcopy confirmation via Mailgram, TELEX or AUTODIN message.

   e. Requester also receives a Telecommunications Service Order (TSO)
      delivered via the same means.

   f. The Installation Branch, Code B642, generates a Network Change
      Request (NCR) from host data provided by Code B652.

   g. The NCR is approved by Code B652 of the PMO and becomes a
      Network Change Directive (NCD).  Host data is added to the NIC
      host table, the ARPANET Monitoring Center (AMC) activates the
      host port, and the requester receives electronic mail
      confirmation of the NCD.

   h. When the host is installed, the requester receives a completion
      report by the same means as the original TSR.

     NOTE:  The TSR and TSO  indicate the assigned network address, and
     therefore, the network node through which service will be provided.
     Each node has a Node Site Coordinator (NSC) (See Appendix ), whom the
     host requester may wish to contact concerning cabling or other
     connection mechanisms between the host and node locations.  If a new
     node must be installed at the site before hosts can be connected to
     the network, an NSC will have to be appointed, who should be prepared
     to assist DDN PMO field representatives with node equipment

                       New Subscriber Request
                              DCA Code B641
                        ARPANET Coordinator, DARPA
                            Feeder TSR and HAF
                            DARPA IPTO Approval
                          DCA Code B652 Approval
                              DCA Code B643
            Requester <------- TSR Issued
             Notified          TSO Issued  --------> DECCO
                              DCA Code B652
                           Provides Host Data
                              DCA Code B642
                              DCA Code B652
             |                      |                      |
        SRI NIC                 Requester                 AMC
             |                  Notified                   |
      Host Table Change                                  NCAN
                                                    DCA Code B652

     AMC:   ARPANET Monitoring Center            NCD:     Network Change Di
     DECCO: Defense Commercial Comm. Office      NCR:     Network Change Re
     HAF:   Host Approved Form                   SRI NIC: Network Informati
     IPTO:  Info. Process. Techniques Office     TSO:     Telecomm. Service
     NCAN:  Network Change Ack. Notice           TSR:     Telecomm. Service

             Figure 3-1:   ARPANET New Subscriber Request Flow

3.1.1  Feeder TSRs

The Feeder TSR provides information for assessing the applicant's need for
network access, and is a preliminary request for service leading to the
issuance of a full TSR by the DDN PMO.  To submit a Feeder TSR for ARPANET
service, the template shown in Figure 3-2 must be completed.

The parts of the Feeder TSR are:

 (1)  TSR ITEM NUMBER - the number for each entry.

 (2)  INFORMATION - data provided by the applicant; on the sample
      template (Figure 3-2) a description is provided of the
      information required for each item.

 (3)  TYPE OF ACTION - indicates whether applicant must complete an
      item, contingent upon choice indicated in Item 103.

For example, if you are starting service, write "start" on line 103 in the
information column.  You must then fill in information for all lines where
there is an "X" in the "START" column under "Type of Action".  If you have
questions about the template, contact the ARPANET Coordinator at DARPA or

                        FEEDER TSR TEMPLATE (Sample)

(1)        (2)                                             (3)

TSR     INFORMATION                                  TYPE OF ACTION
ITEM NO.                                      START  AMEND  REHOME  CANCEL
---     -----------                           ----------------------------

103     TYPE OF ACTION (Start, Change,          X       X       X       X
        Discontinue, Amendment, Rehome)
104     Fill in the words "LEASED EQUIPMENT/    X       X
        SERVICE CONTRACT" if leased modems
        and maintenance is required to be
        provided by the government
105     Fill in the word "DEDICATED" if         X       X       X       X
        ARPANET and "DDN" if MILNET
106     State the requested service date        X       X       X       X
        by day, Greenwich Mean Time, Month,
        and Year. e.g. 141200Z JUL 84.
        NOTE: A minimum of 150 days is required
        for circuits.
110     FULL DUPLEX                             X       X       X
111     Enter the data rate (2.4KB, 1.2KB,      X       X       X
        4.8KB, 9.6KB, 50KB, 56KB, 100KB) of
        the requested service.
112     FULL PERIOD                             X       X       X
115     NO SIGNALLING                           X               X
116     Enter the words "NEW LEASE" if this     X       X       X       X
        is a new requirement, or enter the
        Commercial Communications Service
        Authorization Number (CSA) if this is
        an amendment, rehome, disconnect, or
        change to an existing requirement.
        If no circuit is required, omit this
117     LEAVE BLANK                             X       X       X       X
118     LEAVE BLANK                             X       X       X
120A    The end user location requiring         X       X       X       X
        ARPANET/MILNET Access (Geographical
        location, e.g. city, base, camp, post
        or station that is applicable)
121A    State of the end user location          X       X       X       X
123A    CPV                                     X       X       X       X
124A    The building number where the user's    X       X       X       X
        terminal or host is located that will
        be connected to the ARPANET/MILNET
125A    The room number where the user's        X       X       X       X
        terminal or host is located that will
        be connected to the ARPANET/MILNET
126A    The type of terminal or host equipment  X       X       X
        that will be connected.
128A    The user interface that will be         X       X       X
        connected up to the circuit (RS-232C,
        RS-449, Synchronous, Asynchronous,
        MIL-STD 188-114, Leased Modem)
130A    Provide the name, telephone number      X       X       X       X
        and office code or symbol of a primary
        and alternate person at the user's
        terminal end that is familiar with the
        details and requirements of this request
131A    Provide the complete mailing address    X       X       X       X
        of the primary person identified in
        130A, including the agency, street
        address, building number, city, state
        and zip code.
120B    TO BE DETERMINED BY DCA                 X       X       X
353     Fill in "ARPANET" or "MILNET"           X       X       X
354     If this requirement is for a terminal   X       X       X
        connection and not a host, enter the
        data link protocol (e.g. asynchronous)
357     If this requirement is to connect a     X       X       X
        host, enter the software and hardware
        interface requirements (e.g. RS232/
        V.35/MIL-188-114/Bell 303/cable only
        and HDH/X.25/DH/DH with ECU's
361     If this requirement is for a terminal   X       X       X
        connection and not a host, enter
401     State the exact requirement of this     X       X       X       X
        request, e.g. The purpose of this
        request is to request leased modems
        and circuit between end points.
407A    If this request is to provide leased    X       X       X
        modems, state so here, and if the
        modem is to be a stand alone or rack
        mounted in a cabinet. If additional
        equipment is to be leased, state so
        (e.g. 1-ea 72 inch modem cabinet,
        2-ea 25 ft RS-232 M/F connection
        cable). All equipment to be provided
        by the government should be listed
409     The individual at the user site who     X       X       X
        will accept service.
417     If this requirement is to connect up    X       X       X       X
        a host, please list the host name
        along with any narrative remarks which
        will help to clarify this requirement.
        e.g. statement that user is providing
        circuit and modems if that is the
        case, statement that no circuit is
        required due to it being a local
        connection if that is the case,
        desired/recommended PSN for connection.
        In all cases, the electronic mail
        address for the person shown in 130A
        should be indicated here.
419     DECCO SCOTT AFB                         X       X       X       X
430     Estimated length of service requirement X       X       X
        (12, 24, 36, 48, or 72 months)
431     "N" if ARPANET, "D" if MILNET           X       X       X
437A    YES OWM                                 X       X       X
438A    "NONE" if no leased equipment is        X       X       X
        required or "BOTH" if this request
        includes both circuit and associated
        leased equipment.
501     Justification for the service being     X       X       X
        requested, e.g. To provide UCLA
        connection to the ARPANET for testing
        host interfaces.

                 Figure 3-2:   Sample Feeder TSR Template

Submit the feeder TSR templates for ARPANET service to DARPA:
 U.S. Mail Address

 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
 Information Processing Techniques Office
 1400 Wilson Boulevard, 7th Floor
Arlington, Virginia 22209


Phone: (202) 694-5921

 Network Mailbox


3.2  Backbone Hardware Requirements

3.2.1  Types of Service

The network interface can be either full service (supporting all DDN
protocols) or limited service.  A full-service interface is recommended
whenever possible, as it provides the most functionality for users.

Limited service may be provided by a terminal emulation interface, or an
interface supported by vendor-specific protocols.  Either type may be used
temporarily while awaiting a full-service interface.  Permanent
installation of limited-service interfaces should be restricted to terminal
emulation interfaces, and to systems where the cost of a full-service
interface would be prohibitive.

For complete information on types of service available on the DDN, see the
DDN Subscriber Interface Guide [1].

3.2.2  Equipment Procurement and Costs

Costs for connection to the ARPANET are not fixed, but are arranged on an
individual basis.  Generally, DARPA pays backbone costs and the contractor
pays all other costs (including Error Correction Units and interface units,
when required).  For detailed information, contact the ARPANET POC (see
Section 7.2).

3.2.3  PSN Port Assignment

The initial Packet Switch Node (PSN, formerly called Interface Message
Processor or IMP) port assignment is sent to the subscriber as part of the
TSR/TSO process (described in Section 3.1.1).  Subscribers must not change
PSN ports or switch equipment on PSN ports without approval through the
TSR/TSO process.

Note that PSN port changes must have proper authorization and will not
happen instantaneously.  Also, if a host is changed to a different PSN
port, its host address will change (see Section 3.4.1).  Contact the
ARPANET POC or the NIC for assistance in obtaining a PSN port change or if
problems with host names or addresses arise.

3.3  TAC Connection

ARPANET users may access a network host via a TAC, which is a special
terminal access node.  TACs let a terminal connect directly to the network,
i.e., without going through another host. Terminals may be either
hard-wired to the TAC or connected by a dial-up modem.  A user
geographically remote from a given host can dial up a nearby TAC, log in,
open a connection to the distant host, and work as if he were connected
locally.  Thus, the TAC lets the user reach his host through the network,
rather than through a direct long distance telephone call to the host.

Current TAC locations and phone numbers are available from the NIC.  If
installation of a TAC appears to be necessary for your area or user
population, contact the DARPA POC and describe the need for the
installation of a TAC at the designated location.  DARPA will evaluate the
request and, if the request is warranted, will place an order for TAC
installation with the DDN PMO.

3.4  Registration Procedures

The following sections discuss the administrative steps a potential
subscriber should take to register a host, and the procedures required to
register users once the host is connected to the net.  Figure 3-1 gives an
overview of the process.

3.4.1  Host Registration

Each host on the DDN is identified by a unique host name and host address.
To register a host, information must be supplied to DCA Code B652, the
Packet Switching Operations Branch, as shown in the following examples
(Figures 3-3, 3-4).  Send completed forms online or by U.S. mail to the
ARPANET Coordinator at DARPA.

                            Host Data (Sample)

  LOCATION: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.
            1300 North 17th Street
            Suite 400
            Arlington, Virginia 22206

                          Figure 3-3:   Host Data

                     Host Administrator Data (Sample)

  NAME: Chipman, Steven G.
  U.S. MAIL ADDRESS: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.
                     10 Moulton Street
                     Cambridge, Massachusetts 02238
  TELEPHONE: (617) 497-3505

                   Figure 3-4:   Host Administrator Data

3.4.2  Host Addresses and Domains

The host address contains four decimal numbers, each separated by a period.
Each part represents one octet of a 32-bit address.  The meaning of each
octet depends upon which class of network it describes.  There are three
classes of networks (Class A, Class B, and Class C), based upon the
network's size and function.

On Class A networks, which are large, long-haul networks such as ARPANET
and MILNET, the first octet indicates the network number.  The second octet
refers to the host port number on the PSN; the third octet is reserved, and
is usually zero; and the last octet is the number of the PSN to which the
host is connected.

For Class B networks, the first two octets indicate the network portion of
the number; for Class C networks the first three octets are used to
indicate the network number.  For more information on address mappings, see
RFC 796 [2].

The DDN Network Information Center maintains the official DoD Internet Host
Table and is the network Hostmaster for names and addresses of hosts,
networks, nodes and domains.  Hosts should arrange to regularly update
their local tables by retrieving all or part of the master table from the
NIC Host Name Server.  For information about the DoD Internet Host Table
specification, see RFC 952 [3].

In the near future, all DARPA hosts will be required to either join an
existing "domain" or to administer a domain of their own.  Domains are
administrative entities that provide decentralized host naming and
addressing management.  Their purpose is to distribute the task of naming
and addressing.

Under the domain-naming scheme, information is stored in a distributed,
hierarchical database.  Responsibility for naming domains (or sub-nodes of
the hierarchical naming tree) can then be delegated to different
organizations, each with responsibility for maintaining host-related
information for their domain.  Information about hosts and domains is
disseminated through the network via Name Servers.  For more information on
domains, see RFC 920 [4] and RFC 921 [5].

The domain system on ARPANET is experimental.  The MILNET has not yet
implemented the domain system.  The NIC name server translates between the
two systems and continues to provide a "flat" domainless host table for use
by MILNET hosts while serving as registrar for domain names for the

3.4.3  LAN and Gateway Registration

Subscribers wishing to connect a local area network (LAN) or other non-DDN
network to the ARPANET must first obtain DARPA and DCA approval.  Such
networks are connected to the DDN through a "gateway" computer which
manages communication between the LAN or non-DDN net and the ARPANET.
DARPA treats gateways as regular hosts, so the procedure for registering a
gateway is the same as for hosts.

The subscriber must obtain a network number for each LAN from the NIC.
Within such a "private network", subscribers can assign their own host
names and addresses as long as they follow the internet network addressing
convention [2].  For more information on registering non-DDN networks,
contact HOSTMASTER@SRI-NIC.ARPA online or call (800) 235-3155.

3.4.4  User Registration

The DDN PMO and DARPA have authorized the NIC to register all ARPANET
users, and to maintain this information in the NIC WHOIS database.  This
database serves as an online "white pages" service for ARPANET users [6].

The Host Administrator for each host is responsible for registering the
users of his or her host with the NIC.  This is done electronically over
the network, so the Host Administrator is required to have a network

Users may be registered either by sending filled-in templates to the NIC
through electronic mail, or by using the NIC REGISTER system.  This section
describes the procedures a Host Administrator should follow to register
users.  NIC Registration Template

To register by electronic mail, FTP a copy of the registration template
(pathname NETINFO:USER-TEMPLATE.TXT, see Figure 3-5) from SRI-NIC
(  Complete one template for each individual and separate the
templates by a blank line.  Fill in all the relevant fields as shown below.
Instructions for completing the template are included in the template file.
It is important that you use the NIC template and adhere to the same
data-entry style shown.  This will allow automatic input of the data into
the WHOIS database.  The NIC will not accept data that is not in the
specified template format.

   FULL NAME: Coleman, Jr., Arthur F.
   U.S. MAIL ADDRESS: SRI International
                      333 Ravenswood Avenue
                      Menlo Park, CA 94025
   PHONE: (415) 859-0000

              Figure 3-5:   Sample User Registration Template

The Host Administrator may send his users blank templates to fill out.
Users should return the completed templates to the Host Administrator who
will accumulate them in a single file.  He will review the lists (as he is
responsible for the authorization of registered users on his hosts), and
send the files as online messages to REGISTRAR@SRI-NIC.ARPA.

If the list is too long for a given mail system to process, the Host
Administrator may break the lists arbitrarily (between templates) and send
them as a set of messages.  If the lists are broken up, the subject field
of each message should specify this, e.g., Part 1 of 4, Part 2 of 4, etc.
To assure that the NIC mail system will be able to process the message,
never send a message of over 50,000 characters (100 templates).  Full
instructions for registering users may be obtained from the NIC.

     NOTE:  Registering ARPANET users with the NIC for the WHOIS database
     is a separate process from registering users for ARPANET TAC access.  NIC REGISTER Program

REGISTER is a program running on SRI-NIC that will allow users to
interactively register themselves in the WHOIS database.  Contact the NIC
for details on using this program.

3.4.5  ARPANET TAC Access Registration

ARPANET TAC users must be authorized for network access by the "Responsible
Person" (RP) in their organization.  Once users have been given permission
by the RP to use an ARPANET TAC, the RP or his delegate, or the user
himself may enter user registration data into the ARPANET TAC User Database
(UDB), using the User Database Tool located at host USC-ISI.  The database
is downloaded regularly to several "login hosts" throughout the net.  For
information on using the database tool, the RP or the user should obtain
and read ARPANET Access Control, User Manual for the User Database Tool [7]
available in hardcopy or online from the NIC.

     NOTE:  ARPANET TAC usernames and passwords must be changed every 6
     months as they will be invalid after that time.  The user may make
     this change himself, once he has been given permission to be a TAC
     user.  However, the change must be made within the 6 month time period
     or permission to be a TAC user will again need to be assigned by an


A special set of DoD Internet protocols has been developed and implemented
on the ARPANET.  The most important of these are the Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).  These protocols govern the
handling of internet communication, and must be implemented on each host or
host interface before connecting to the network.

Each site has the choice of implementing its own version of the protocols,
adapting a public domain version of the protocols, or purchasing an
implementation from a commercial vendor.  This section discusses some aids
to help subscribers choose the best approach based upon their needs.

     NOTE:  Protocols approved for use on the DDN are issued as official
     DoD Military Standards (MIL STDs).  The ARPANET is an experimental
     network and may choose to implement experimental ARPANET protocols.
     These may be ARPANET standards, i.e., required on the ARPANET, but may
     not be MIL STDs or official DoD protocols.

4.1  DDN Protocol Handbook

The 1985 DDN Protocol Handbook [8] describes specifications for MIL STD
communication protocols, ARPANET standard protocols, experimental
protocols, and de facto protocols in use on the DDN and the DARPA Internet.
It also includes background information, policy information, implementation
guidelines, and instructions on how to obtain other protocol information of

The primary purpose of the Handbook is to serve as a reference guide for
those planning to implement the DoD suite of protocols on various computers
to be attached to the ARPANET or the DDN.  It is an essential reference
tool for sites bringing hosts onto the network.  The Handbook is a
multi-volume set published by the NIC and is available from the NIC for
$110.00 prepaid, or from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

4.2  TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide

The TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide [9] is a guide to commercially
available implementations of the TCP/IP protocols, including public domain
implementations.  It is published for informational purposes only by the
DDN Network Information Center at SRI International on behalf of the DDN
PMO and in no way endorses or officially recommends any implementation or
product on the part of DCA, DARPA, the DoD, or the NIC.  The Guide is
useful for finding out what public domain and commercial implementations of
protocols are available.

4.3  RFCs

Before a proposed protocol is accepted for use on the DARPA Internet, it is
discussed, reviewed, and often revised by members of the Internet Advisory
Board, its Task Force members and other interested parties.  This dialog is
captured in a set of technical notes known as Requests For Comments, or

Individuals who wish to be added to the online RFC notification list should
send a message to NIC@SRI-NIC.ARPA requesting that their names be added to
the distribution list.

RFCs can also be FTPed from SRI-NIC, using the pathname RFC:RFCnnn.TXT,
where "nnn" is the RFC number; also available is the file
RFC:RFC-INDEX.TXT, an index to RFCs.  See Section 6.1.4 for information on
ordering hardcopies of RFCs.


As the ARPANET is an experimental network, there may be occasions when site
researchers or representatives wish to make temporary or permanent changes
in the host or node software or hardware.  Host software may be modified
without DDN PMO approval; node software may not.  Node equipment is owned
and managed by the DDN.  Any changes require proper paperwork and
sufficient time to transact.

     NOTE:  PSN hardware and software may not be modified without DDN and
     DARPA approval. Requests for such changes must be made through the
     proper administrative channels.

5.1  Subscriber Software and Hardware Modification Requests

Requests for node or backbone software modifications or bug fixes should be
sent to the ARPANET Monitoring Center (AMC) at BBN Communications
Corporation (BBNCC; see Section 6.2).  BBNCC, acting on behalf of DARPA,
will prepare a Patch Note and submit it to the DDN Configuration Control
Group (CCG) for approval.  The CCG will evaluate the request, and if
approved, will forward it to DCA Code B643 for implementation.  (See Figure

                                   DARPA (info copy)
           User or DARPA Request >--> BBNCC >--> DDN CCG >--> Implementatio

               Figure 5-1:   Modification Request Procedure

5.2  ARPANET Software/Node Modification Procedures

From time to time patches to, or new versions of, node software are
released by the DDN PMO.  Occasionally these require adjustments to the
protocol implementations at the host end.  In general, official backbone
program changes that may affect hosts or users will be announced through a
DDN Management Bulletin (an official online mail notification issued by the
NIC on behalf of the DDN PMO), and coordinated with site personnel prior to
implementation by the DDN.


6.1  DDN Network Information Center

The DDN Network Information Center, located at SRI International, Menlo
Park, CA, is funded by the DDN PMO to provide general user assistance and
information services to DDN and ARPANET subscribers and new users.

NIC personnel work closely with DARPA, DDN, BBNCC, network site
representatives, network protocol groups, vendors, contractors, government
agencies, and military sponsors to provide potential subscribers and new
users with pertinent network information.  The NIC also serves as the DDN
Protocol Repository.  Listed below are some of the services provided by the
NIC that may be of interest to new subscribers.

6.1.1  User Assistance Service

The NIC provides user assistance services by telephone, U.S. mail, and
electronic mail.  NIC staff can answer subscriber questions related to
connecting a host to the net, or general questions about using the net, and
can make referrals to the appropriate network representative for
administrative and technical questions.  Additionally, the NIC is the
source for official ARPANET protocol documents (other than MIL STDs), and
is the network repository for RFCs and other technical documents.

The NIC User Assistance "hotline" telephone service is available Monday -
Friday, 7 am to 4 pm, Pacific time.  The number is:

                              (800) 235-3155

6.1.2  NIC Contacts

Correspondence may be sent by electronic or U.S. mail to:

     Title                              Network Mailbox
     User Assistance                    NIC@SRI-NIC.ARPA
     User Registration and MILNET TAC Access                               
     Network Naming and Addressing      HOSTMASTER@SRI-NIC.ARPA
     Feedback                           SUGGESTIONS@SRI-NIC.ARPA
     Manager, NIC    (415) 859-6287     FEINLER@SRI-NIC.ARPA

     U.S. Mail Address
     DDN Network Information Center
     SRI International, Room EJ291
     333 Ravenswood Avenue
     Menlo Park, CA 94025

6.1.3  Online Servers  TACNEWS

TACNEWS is a NIC online service that offers login help to TAC users,
includes the current list of ARPANET and MILNET TAC phone numbers, and
provides a mechanism for reading the DDN Newsletters and the DDN Management
Bulletins.  Users should read these publications regularly to stay current
on DDN policies, announcements, and network news items.  Access TACNEWS by
logging into a TAC and typing "@n<Return>" or by using the TELNET service
to connect to host
SRI-NIC ( and typing "tacnews<Return>".  WHOIS/NICNAME

WHOIS/NICNAME is a NIC program that provides an electronic "white pages" of
network users.  It lists the name, network mailbox, U.S. mail address,
telephone number, and host for all registered users.

This program is available on the SRI-NIC host ( and can be
reached by opening a TELNET connection and then by typing "whois<Return>".

WHOIS/NICNAME may also be run from a local host.  WHOIS/NICNAME user
programs for several operating systems are available from the NIC.  Contact
the NIC for copies and see RFC 954 [6] for details.  Note that on most UNIX
systems the service is invoked by typing "nicname <Return>."  Host Name Server

The NIC provides an internet Host Name Server on SRI-NIC ( port
101 decimal.  This server delivers machine-translatable host
name/address/attribute information describing networks, gateways, and hosts
within the DDN.  The server can deliver a single response or the entire
host table, depending upon the type of query sent.  The server provides the
information outlined in RFC 952 [3] and is itself described in RFC 953
[10].  For further information on using the Host Name Server, make a TELNET
connection to SRI-NIC port 101 and type "help<Return>".

6.1.4  Documents

The NIC edits, publishes, and distributes several documents useful to
ARPANET site representatives and users.  Listed here are those of interest
to new or potential subscribers and users.  (See Section 8 for additional

Documents of interest to subscribers:


     The DDN Protocol Handbook [8] is a three-volume reference set of
     experimental ARPANET and official DoD network protocols together with
     implementation details and related background information.  It can be
     ordered prepaid from the NIC for $110.00, or from DTIC.

          NOTE:  The NIC publishes the DDN Protocol Handbook as a source
          book for the convenience of implementers and network researchers.
          Individual DoD military standards (MIL STDs) for  protocols in
          use on the DDN are officially issued by, and also are available
          from, the Naval Publications and Forms Center, Code 3015, 5801
          Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120, (215) 697-3321.


     The Vendors Guide lists software and hardware implementations of the
     DDN protocols, based upon information supplied by vendors.  It is
     available at no charge from the NIC for information purposes only.
     Entry on this list does not imply endorsement.

RFCs (hardcopies)

     Requests for Comments or RFCs are a set of network technical notes.
     Hardcopies of RFCs can be ordered from the NIC.  There is a $5.00
     copying charge for each RFC under 100 pages, and a $10.00 copying
     charge for each RFC over 100 pages.  Orders should be prepaid to the
     Documents of interest to both subscribers and users:


     The DDN New User Guide [12] is a brief guide to DDN network tools and
     services designed to introduce users to the network.  Available from
     the NIC or DTIC.


     The DDN Directory [11] is a directory of users and hosts on the
     network.  It includes the name, address, network mailbox, and
     telephone number for each registered network user (as of 1984).
     Available for $10.00 prepaid to SRI International, DDN Network
     Information Center, Room EJ291, Menlo Park, CA 94025, or from the
     Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

6.1.5  Online Files

The NIC maintains a number of online files which are available to network
subscribers via the ARPANET.  These files contain information about
protocols, site personnel, hosts, and other subjects relevant to network
users.  For more information on available public-access files, see the DDN
New User Guide [12], or contact the NIC User Assistance service.

6.2  ARPANET Network Monitoring Center

The ARPANET Network Monitoring Center (AMC) is located within the Network
Operations Situation Room at BBN Communications Corporation (BBNCC) in
Cambridge, MA. AMC staff provide operations support for the ARPANET.  The
AMC concentrates on real-time network management of the ARPANET by
maximizing the network operating efficiency.  It provides:

   - Operations and technical support

   - Configuration management and software maintenance and enhancement

   - Hardware maintenance

   - Hardware requirements

   - Network experiments.

AMC services include remote status monitoring, coordination of network
outage troubleshooting efforts, and 24-hour-per-day/7-day-per-week
technical assistance for network users.  The AMC typically works on
backbone-related outages consisting of node and circuit problems, and
provides help in determining whether or not host connectivity problems are

Contact the AMC for all network hardware problems, for hardware field
service, problems with host interfaces, or suspected node software
problems.  Inform the AMC of any extended outages at your site, especially
those that may affect the PSN, and consult with them before carrying out
any experiment that may affect the network.

Users are encouraged to telephone the AMC rather than send electronic mail,
as this assures that the AMC will get all the necessary information, and
usually produces a faster response.  (Note, however, that all orders for
backbone service must originate from the PMO.)

NOTE:  The AMC will accept collect calls to (617) 661-0100.

6.2.1  AMC Contacts

   Title                      Telephone    Network Mailbox
   Network Monitoring Center  (617) 661-0100                               
                              (617) 497-3571
   New Subscriber Liaison     (617) 497-2633                               
   Manager, NOC               (617) 497-3117                               

6.3  Complaint Center/Unsatisfactory Service Reports

A complaint center terminal is maintained at the AMC to monitor messages
from users reporting problems or seeking assistance.  (Send electronic mail
to GRIPES@BBN-UNIX.ARPA.)  An additional channel for reporting
unsatisfactory service is the ARPANET Unsatisfactory Service Report (USR),
which is the formal mechanism for reporting operational deficiencies in the
ARPANET backbone.  Problems or complaints which cannot be resolved through
normal channels should be reported by means of the USR.  This may include
(but is not limited to) the following:

   - Excessive response time

   - Inadequate restoral procedures

   - Unsatisfactory maintenance support.

The Subscriber must decide when service has reached an unsatisfactory
point, and must initiate the USR if the problem cannot be resolved.  Send
the report online or by U.S. mail (see 7.1 for address) to DCA Code B652,
with information copies to the AMC (BBNCC) and any other activity deemed
appropriate by the originator.


7.1  DDN PMO Contacts

 Code  Title                      Telephone[Area Code (703), Autovon 356-xx
 B652  ARPANET POC                285-5233  ARPANETMGR@DDN1.ARPA
 B600  Program Manager            285-5010  DCAB600@DDN1.ARPA
 B641  Subscriber Req. & Integration Branch 285-5027                       
 B602B Data Base & Configuration Mgt. Branch                               
 B652  Packet Switch Operations Branch      285-5225                       

 Postal Mail:                 Defense Communications Agency
                              B652, Packet Switch Operations Branch
                              Washington, DC 20305

7.2  DARPA Contacts

 Title                        Telephone    Network Mailbox
 ARPANET COORDINATOR          (202) 694-5921                               
 DARPA POC                    (202) 694-3049                               
 Internet Advisory Board      (202) 694-4002                               
                              (617) 253-6003                               
                              (213) 822-1511                               
                              (703) 883-6000                               

 Postal Mail:                 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
                              Information Processing Techniques Office
                              Attn: Lt. Col. Bob E. Baker
                              1400 Wilson Boulevard
                              Arlington, VA 22209-2389

7.3  Contacts for Specific Services

                              Telephone    Network Mailbox
 ARPANET Access Authorization (202) 694-3049                               
 ARPANET TAC Access Administration         (202) 694-3049                  
 ARPANET New TAC Requests     (202) 694-3049                               
 ARPANET Policy and Administration         (202) 694-5050                  
 Backbone Equipment Information            (617) 497-2633                  
 Backbone Installation Schedule            (703) 285-5231                  
 ARPANET Service Requests     (202) 694-5921                               
 General ARPANET Mgt. Information          (703) 285-5233                  
 General ARPANET Information  (800) 235-3155                               
 Node Problems                (617) 661-0100                               


Below is a bibliography of manuals and documents that are mentioned in this
document and are helpful in understanding the ARPANET and DDN.  The
ordering number is given, when known, for items that may be ordered from
the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

Documents marked (NIC) are available in hardcopy from the NIC; documents
marked (PMO) are available from the DDN PMO.  Files available online at the
NIC (host SRI-NIC, are indicated by giving the pathname in the
form [DIRECTORY:FILENAME.EXTENSION].  These files may be copied across the
network by using the File Transfer Protocol program (FTP).  Call the NIC if
you need assistance with FTP.

8.1  Cited References

[1]  DDN Subscriber Interface Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program
     Management Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC,
     1983.  (NIC) [AD-A132 877/2]

[2]  RFC 796, Address Mappings. University of Southern California,
     Information Sciences Institute, Marina del Rey, CA, September 1981.
     (NIC) [RFC:RFC796.TXT]

[3]  RFC 952, DoD Internet Host Table.  SRI International, Menlo Park, CA,
     October 1985. (NIC) [RFC:RFC952.TXT]

[4]  RFC 920, Domain Requirements. University of Southern California,
     Information Sciences Institute, Marina del Rey, CA, October 1984.
     (NIC) [RFC:RFC920.TXT]

[5]  RFC 921, Domain Name System Implementation Schedule - Revised.
     University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute,
     Marina del Rey, CA, October 1984. (NIC) [RFC:RFC921.TXT]

[6]  RFC 954, NICNAME/WHOIS.  SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, October
     1985.  (NIC) [RFC:RFC954.TXT]

[7]  ARPANET Access Control, User Manual for the User Database Tool.
     Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA, July 1984.

[8]  DDN Protocol Handbook.  DDN Network Information Center, SRI
     International, Menlo Park, CA, November 1985.  (NIC, $110.00 domestic,
     $130.00 overseas, prepaid)

[9]  TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide.  DDN Network Information
     Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, 1985. (NIC) [NETINFO:TCP-

[10] RFC 953, Hostnames Server.  SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, October
     1985. (NIC) [RFC:RFC953.TXT]

[11] DDN Directory.  DDN Network Information Center, SRI International,
     Menlo Park, CA, 1984. (NIC, $10.00 prepaid) [AD-A148 213]

[12] DDN New User Guide.  DDN Network Information Center, SRI
     International, Menlo Park, CA, 1985. (NIC)

8.2  Additional References

ARPANET Access Control, User Guide for the User Database Tool.  Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA, July 1984. (NIC)

Assigned Numbers, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern
California, Marina del Rey, CA.  (NIC) [RFC:ASSIGNED-NUMBERS.TXT]

DDN Defense Data Network Brochure.  Defense Data Network, Program
Management Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC, 1984.

DDN Subscriber Security Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program Management
Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC, 1983.  (NIC)
[AD-A152 524]

DDN User's Planning Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program Management
Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC, 1985.  (PMO)

DDN X.25 Host Interface Specification.  Defense Data Network, Program
Management Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC, 1983.
(NIC) [NETINFO:X25.DOC] [AD-A137 427]

and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, 1981.  [AD-A115-440]

Instructions for Network User Registration Drive (MILNET).  DDN Network
Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, October 1983.  (NIC)

Submission of Telecommunications Service Requests, DCA Circular 310-130-1.
Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC, 1983.  (PMO)

TAC Users' Guide, Report No. 4780.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.,
Cambridge, MA, 1982.  (NIC) [NETINFO:TAC-USER.DOC] [AD-A147 366]


Listed here are terms and acronyms used in this document.  Definitions are
given for terms, whereas organizational acronyms are generally just
expanded to their full length.

AMC               ARPANET Network Monitoring Center, located at BBNCC,
                  Cambridge, MA.

ARPA              see DARPA.

ARPANET           DARPA's packet-switched host-to-host digital
                  communications network which links a wide variety of
                  DoD-sponsored computers at research centers around the

BBNCC             Bolt Beranek and Newman Communications Corporation; the
                  company that provides network node hardware, software and
                  field servicing, and manages the ARPANET Network
                  Monitoring Center.  Early contributor to the development
                  of the DDN.

backbone          The nodes (see below) and the leased telephone lines and
                  satellites connecting them, which form the core of the

CCG               DCA Configuration Control Group, the group which screens
                  and approves changes to the backbone configuration as

DARPA             Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

DCA               Defense Communications Agency.

DCEC              Defense Communications Engineering Center.

DDN               Defense Data Network; the DoD's host-to-host, packet-
                  switched data communications network.  The DDN
                  interconnects several military networks, one of which is
                  the ARPANET.

DDN PMO           Defense Data Network Program Management Office; the
                  office within the DCA responsible for management of the

DECCO             Defense Commercial Communications Office.

DoD               Department of Defense.

Feeder TSR        Preliminary Telecommunications Service Request (TSR) used
                  by DARPA to request ARPANET service from the DDN PMO.

FTP               File Transfer Protocol; the network protocol that allows
                  host-to-host file transfer across the network without
                  disrupting the format of the file being transferred.

gateway           A special computer which interconnects two networks,
                  performs any needed protocol conversion or address
                  translation, and administers access control between them.

HAdmin            Host Administrator; see Appendix for a list of Host
                  Administrator duties.

HAF               Host Approved Form provided by DARPA IPTO.

host              Computer directly connected to a PSN port on the DDN.

HOSTMASTER        Mailbox at the NIC for host registration, name, address,
                  and other changes to information in the DDN host table.

hostname          Name which officially identifies a host computer attached
                  to the DDN.

IMP               Interface Message Processor; now called Packet Switch
                  Node or PSN, which see.

INCO              INstallation Check Out kits; containers of node spare

Internet Protocol Standard that allows Internet networks running different
                  protocols to connect and communicate with each other.

IPTO              Information Processing Techniques Office; the DARPA
                  office that administers and sets policy for the ARPANET.

ISI               University of Southern California Information Sciences

LAN               Local Area Network; a private network that connects data
                  processing equipment in a limited geographic area (e.g.
                  an office, building, or complex of buildings).

M/A-COM           M/A-COM Linkabit, Incorporated.

MIT               Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

MIL-STD           Military Standard; the specification for a standard
                  (including network protocols) that is to be implemented
                  for a military system or as a product used by the DoD.

MILNET            Unclassified operational MILitary NETwork, which is part
                  of the DDN.

MITRE             MITRE Corporation.

NCAN              Network Change Acknowledgement Notice.

NCD               Network Change Directive.

NCR               Network Change Request.

NIC               Network Information Center located at SRI International,
                  Menlo Park, CA, under contract to the DDN PMO.

node              Packet switch; a PSN, TAC, mail bridge, or combination of

NSC               Node Site Coordinator; local DDN representative assigned
                  to a TAC or PSN who is responsible for access control and
                  accountability for all DDN-owned hardware, software and
                  circuits located at the node site.  (See Appendix for a
                  list of NSC duties).

OSD               Office of the Secretary of Defense.

PDC               Program Designator Code; code used to identify the
                  funding activity responsible for reimbursing the cost of
                  backbone charges.

PMO               Program Management Office of the DDN.

POC               Point Of Contact.

PSN               Packet Switch Node; a store-and-forward packet switch to
                  which several host computers can be connected.

REGISTRAR         Mailbox at the NIC for user registration, name, address,
                  and other changes to information in the registration
                  (WHOIS) database.

RFC               Requests For Comments; a set of technical notes
                  describing networking research carried out by the DARPA
                  network community (available from the NIC).

RP                Responsible Person; person appointed by DARPA to register
                  ARPANET TAC users in a particular organization.

site              Organization or facility where host or node equipment is

SMTP              Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; the official DoD mail

socket            Logical address of a port providing access to a specific
                  device or service on a host.

SRI-NIC           The DDN Network Information Center host computer, located
                  at SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.  This host is
                  multi-homed on both the ARPANET and the MILNET, and
                  provides information services to both.

SRI               SRI International; location of the DDN Network
                  Information Center and early contributor to the
                  development of the ARPANET and the DDN.

subscriber        A system connected to the ARPANET, and the individuals
                  responsible for that system.

TAC               Terminal Access Controller; a special host attached to a
                  PSN that lets terminals connect directly to the DDN.

TAC Access Code   Password assigned to TAC users for TAC login.

TAC USER ID       Alphanumeric character string that identifies a TAC user
                  upon TAC login.

TCP/IP            Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; two of
                  the DoD standard network protocols.

TELCO             Telephone company.

TELNET            DoD protocol for opening a transparent (virtual terminal)
                  connection from one host to another.  Also refers to the
                  program implementation that provides this service.

TIP               Terminal Interface Processor; predecessor of the TAC,
                  serving a similar function.

TSO               Telecommunications Service Order; DCA authorization to
                  start, change, or discontinue circuits or trunks.

TSR               Telecommunications Service Request; a valid, approved and
                  funded telecommunications service requirement submitted
                  by DCA through DECCO to the telephone companies.

UCL               University College London, England.

UCLA              University of California, Los Angeles.

UDB               User Database Tool for registering ARPANET users for TAC

USR               Unsatisfactory Service Report; report sent to the DDN PMO
                  by a network subscriber to report unsatisfactory network


This appendix describes the duties of ARPANET personnel at host and node

1. Responsible Person

The person in a particular organization appointed by DARPA who has
authority to give ARPANET users permission for TAC access is called a
Responsible Person (RP).  RP's are representatives of organizations
involved in DARPA research programs.


   a. For ARPANET TAC Access, a \Responsible Person" has been
      identified in each government and contractor organization whose
      members need to use ARPANET TACs.  The Responsible Person grants
      permission to use an APRANET TAC to members of his or her
      organization by updating the ARPANET user database (which is
      different from the NIC User Registration database).  A \User
      Database Tool" is used by the Responsible Persons or their
      designated alternates to add, delete, and change information
      describing authorized ARPANET TAC users.

   b. The motivation for the organization-oriented approach to
      authorization of TAC usage is to put the authorization in the
      hands of the people best able to validate the requirement for
      access.  The \Responsible Persons" must make sure that TAC
      access is granted only to people who are authorized to use the
      ARPANET, and that such access conforms to guidelines on the
      purpose of the ARPANET and the proper use of ARPANET TACs.

2. Host Administrator

The Host Administrator (HAdmin) has administrative responsibility for the
policies, practices, and concerns of a host or hosts connected to the DDN,
including responsibility for that host's DDN users.


   a. Assists the DDN PMO by ensuring that network policies and
      procedures are observed by the users.  Ensures that all of his
      or her host users, who are using the network or the network
      TACs, have been authorized for ARPANET access and are registered
      in the NIC User Registration database.

   b. Manages the network access control procedures and password
      system, and is responsible for reporting network-related host
      break-ins and assisting with investigative effort as needed.

   c. Coordinates with the DDN PMO on installation and removal of
      hosts on the DDN; and also coordinates installation of, or
      changes to, host software that has direct or indirect impact on
      the DDN.  The HAdmin provides the DDN PMO and the NIC with
      required descriptive information for each new host addition or
      host change, and coordinates the host certification procedure
      with the DDN PMO prior to passing traffic on the network.  The
      HAdmin is responsible for the proper implementation and
      maintenance of DDN protocols at the host level.

   d. Serves as local point of contact for his or her respective hosts
      and local users and coordinates suspected network-related
      problems directly with the network monitoring center.

   e. Provides network information to the NIC, and assists local users
      and other interested personnel with network-related matters.

3. Node Site Coordinator

The Node Site Coordinator is designated as having site access control, DDN
hardware and software accountability, and coordination responsibility for
the DDN circuits and equipment located at the DDN Node Site.


   a. Directly interacts with DDN management channels and the network
      monitoring center on network communications operational matters.

   b. Provides the node site's single point of contact for network
      backbone matters.  (Delegation of responsibilities to
      individuals within the node site is the NSC's prerogative,
      however, the NSC is still that node site's single point of
      contact for network backbone matters).

   c. Accountable for DDN node hardware and software (cassette tapes).

   d. Authorizes and ensures personnel access to the node site.

   e. Supervises, assists, coordinates or monitors the installation
      and implementation of node hardware, software, and circuits.

   f. Performs administrative functions, as required.

   g. Ensures the node site has a single place of contact for the DDN
      or its representatives to obtain local site assistance on a
      24-hour, 7-day a week basis, when required.  (In the isolated
      case that the node site is located in a facility that is not
      manned on a 24-hour, 7-day a week basis, the NSC ensures that
      someone at the place of contact can obtain local site assistance
      within two hours).

   h. Provides for accountability and access control of the PSN/TAC
      system cassette tapes (IMPLOD and SYSTEM).

   i. Provides for custodial care of the on-site container(s) of node
      spare parts, known as INCO (INstallation Check Out) kits.
      (Normally, these kits are located at selected overseas sites).

   j. Provides site coordination and authorizes personnel with site
      access for installation, removal, and modifications to DDN
      hardware or circuits, for emergency or scheduled preventive
      maintenance, as directed by DCA or the designated network
      monitoring center.

   k. Ensures that local site assistance is provided, when required by
      the network monitoring center, for corrective actions during
      node hardware or circuit degradation or outages, which are
      beyond the capability of the network monitoring center to
      correct.  For instance, on instruction from the network
      monitoring center due to PSN or circuit failure, the local site
      representative may be requested to press reset buttons on the
      back of PSN/TAC chassis, observe status lights, insert/remove
      the tape cassette (normally always in reader), switch cables,
      loop modems (normally on TAC connections), loop modems on
      covered circuits in selected locations or coordinate restoration
      actions with local field-site communications

   l. Ensures that DDN hardware, software, or circuits are not
      altered, moved or tampered with, without proper authorization.

   m. Monitors investigative reports related to DDN hardware and
      software located at the node site.

   n. Performs limited administrative functions such as: (1)
      maintaining and being aware of operating instructions issued by
      DCA, the Network Information Center (NIC) on behalf of the DDN
      PMO, and the network monitoring center; (2) maintaining a
      contact list of telephone numbers for the local TELCO service
      office or DCS technical control, network monitoring center, and
      the Host Administrator for each host connected to the DDN PSN(s)
      at that node site; (3) maintaining a \Node Site Access Roster,"
      which lists all personnel authorized to have access to the node
      site and associated equipment.


Access controls
   host   4
   TAC   4
AMC   15
   access and use   4
   description   3
ARPANET Network Monitoring Center
   collect calls   15
   description   15
   telephone numbers   15

Bug fixes   11

CCG   11, 21
   Unsatisfactory Service Reports
Configuration Control Group   11
Costs   6

   addresses and phone numbers
   mailing address   6
   mission   3
   responsibilities   3
   description   3
   responsibilities   3
DDN   3
   Directory   15
   Network Information Center
   New User Guide   15
   Protocol Handbook   14
DDN Network Information Center
   toll free number   13
   contacts   17
   mailing address   6
Defense Communications Agency   3
Domains   7

Feeder TSR   6

Gateway registration   7

HAF   5
Host address   7
Host Administrator
   duties   23
Host Name Server   14
   function   7
Host table
   updating   7

   responsibilities   3
   task forces   3
Information Processing Techniques
   see also IPTO   3
Internet Research Program
   mission   3
   responsibilities   3, 5

Local Area Networks   7


Naming domains   7
   confirmation   5
   generation of   5
Network Monitoring Center   15
Network Operations Center
   telephone numbers   15
   getting Host tables from   7
   installation   5
   problems   15
   software modifications   11
Node Site Coordinator
   duties   23
   requirement for   5
   requirement for   5

   ARPANET   9
   documentation   9
   Internet   9
   vendors   9
   modifications   11
   port assignment   7
   port changes   7
   relation to network number   7

Registration template
   user   7
Registration   7
   host   7
   TAC access   8
   user   7
   user - REGISTER   8
   user - template   7
Registration template
   host   7
   Host Administrator   7
Registration template,
   user   7
Request For Comments   9
Responsible Person   4
   duties   23
   hardcopies   14

Software modifications   11
Subscriber access
   time required   5
Subscriber access procedures   5

TAC   4
   Implementations and Vendors
        Guide   14
Telephone numbers   17
Terminal connection   7
   function   5
   receipt of   5
   function   5
   obtaining   5
   submission   5

   registration   8
Unsatisfactory Service Reports
User Data Base
   ARPANET   4
User Data Base
   registration   8

Vendors Guide
   TCP/IP   14


                              List of Figures

 Figure 2-1:   Hardware and Configuration of the DDN                      3
 Figure 2-2:   Management of the ARPANET                                  3
 Figure 3-1:   ARPANET New Subscriber Request Flow                        5
 Figure 3-2:   Sample Feeder TSR Template                                 6
 Figure 3-3:   Host Data                                                  7
 Figure 3-4:   Host Administrator Data                                    7
 Figure 3-5:   Sample User Registration Template                          7
 Figure 5-1:   Modification Request Procedure                            11