perm filename DOC.LES[S,DOC] blob sn#088905 filedate 1974-02-28 generic text, type C, neo UTF8
C00001 00001
C00008 00002
C00012 00004	                Table of Contents
C00015 00005	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION           Introduction                 1-1
C00019 00006	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION           Introduction                 1-2
C00023 00007	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-1
C00027 00008	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-2
C00032 00009	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-3
C00035 00010	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-4
C00039 00011	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-5
C00044 00012	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-6
C00047 00013	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-7
C00051 00014	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-8
C00056 00015	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services              2-9
C00061 00016	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services             2-10
C00065 00017	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION         Existing Services             2-11
C00070 00018	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-1
C00074 00019	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-2
C00079 00020	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-3
C00083 00021	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-4
C00087 00022	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-5
C00092 00023	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION   Planned and Proposed Services        3-6
C00098 00025	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION      Computer Character Set            B-1
C00102 00026	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION      Computer Character Set            B-2
C00106 00027	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION      Computer Character Set            B-3
C00108 00028	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-1
C00111 00029	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-2
C00113 00030	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-3
C00117 00031	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-4
C00119 00032	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-5
C00121 00033	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-6
C00123 00034	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-7
C00127 00035	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-8
C00128 00036	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                    C-9
C00131 00037	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                   C-10
C00133 00038	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                   C-11
C00135 00039	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                   C-12
C00138 00040	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                   C-13
C00141 00041	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               Media                   C-14
C00143 00042	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-1
C00147 00043	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-2
C00150 00044	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-3
C00154 00045	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-4
C00158 00046	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-5
C00161 00047	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-6
C00165 00048	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION               COSTS                    D-7
C00168 00049	SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION            References                  E-1
C00170 ENDMK
                                                        February 1970

                       Documentation Services
                             L. Earnest


This note reviews documentation policies and services of the Stanford
Artificial Intelligence Project.  The costs of producing, reproducing
and maintaining documents in various  ways  are  analyzed.   Computer
terminals  are  found to be more econimical for text preparation than
typewriters in cases where the document is to be revised one or  more
times.   On  a  marginal cost basis, the line printer is the cheapest
practical printing service available to us for runs up to about  1000

It  is  proposed  that forthcoming SAILONs be formatted in a way that
permits  mechanized  updating.     A  number  of  new   documentation
services are proposed that take advantage of our computer facility.


Much of the cost information used below was developed by Ken Down and
Gerry Gleason.  Their help is gratefully acknowledged.

This work was supported in part by  the  Advanced  Research  Projects
Agency of the Department of Defense under Contract SD 183.
                Table of Contents

Sections                              		Page

1  Introduction					1-1

2  Existing Services				2-1
    2A Production				2-1
    2B Reproduction				2-5
    2C Maintenance				2-8

3  Planned and Proposed Services		3-1
   3A New Displays and Memory			3-1
   3B Video Synthesizer				3-1
   3C ARPA Network				3-1
   3D Display Editors and Perusers		3-2
   3E Document Compiler				3-3
   3F Formatted File Processors			3-3
   3G Spelling Checker				3-4
   3H Microfilm Output                          3-5
   3I Graphics Language and Processors		3-5

4  Conclusions					3-6


A  Typewriter Character Set			A-1

B  Computer Character Set			B-1
   B1 Internal Character Set			B-1
   B2 Control Characters			B-2
   B3 Printed Characters			B-3

C Media						C-1
   C1 External Publications			C-1
   C2 Film Reports				C-2
   C3 Artificial Intelligence Memos		C-3
   C4 Operating Notes (SAILONs)			C-7
   C5 Letters					C-9
   C6 Memoranda			                C-11
   C7 Program Notes				C-12
   C8 Notices					C-13
   C9 Messages					C-14

D  Costs                                        D-1
   D1 Text Preparation Equipment		D-1
   D2 Page Reproduction				D-3
   D3 Report Reproduction			D-5
   D4 Docment Storage				D-7

E  References					E-1
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;           Introduction                 1-1

1.  Introduction

The  most  important  products  of our research program are new ideas
that are transmitted to the outside world.  Many of these ideas  move
through  volatile channels such as informal verbal communications and
papers presented at conferences. While these  media  serve  the  very
important  function  of alerting people to new ideas, the fundamental
medium of exchange is documentation  of  some  form.   Behind  nearly
every  good  idea is a pile of paper proving that it is true, useful,
and virtuous.

Members of the Artificial  Intelligence  Project  have  a  number  of
alternative documentation forms to choose from, including
    1) external publication in conference  proceedings,  journal
    articles, and books,
    2) film  reports  on  subjects  that  lend  themselves  to
    audio-visual presentation,
    3) Artificial Intelligence Memos on research results, and
    4) Operating Notes (SAILONs) on the theory and operation  of
    computer   programs  and  equipment.
Less formal media include letters to colleagues outside Stanford  and
memoranda  to others in Stanford. Each document class has a different
purpose  and  distribution  pattern.  Constraints  on   the   various
documentation forms are discussed in Appendix C.

The proper measures of a document's value are the  quality,  density,
and  clarity of ideas presented.  Documentation volume is known to be
misleading as a measure of  value  but  is  interesting  nonetheless.
Figure  1-1  lists  by  calendar year the number of people who had at
least part of their salary paid by the A.I. Project at the  beginning
of the year (January) and the number of publications of various types
published during the year.  It should be  noted  that  at  any  given
time,  there were an additional 30% to 60% of other people affiliated
with the Project who had fellowships or other support.


    Calendar Year    1963   1964   1965   1966   1967  1968  1969

    Salaried Staff      0      6     15     30     41    51    64
    External Pubs.      4      0      1      4     14    17    23

    Film Reports                                    1     1     2

    Ph.D. Theses                             3      2     4     5

    Other A.I. Memos   11     15     11      7      9    14    28

    SAILONs                                  3     31    17    15
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;           Introduction                 1-2

Initially,  A.I.  Memos  were  essentially  the  only kind of project
document  used  and  some  were  employed  to  describe  programs  or
equipment,  rather  than  research results.  With the delivery of the
PDP-6 computer in 1966, the  SAILON  series  was  initiated  for  the
description of such systems.

The   continuing  growth  of  our  programming  activities  makes  it
appropriate now to propose another kind of document, called a Program
Note, which is even less formal than a SAILON and is used to describe
small system programs  or  user  programs  that  have  not  yet  been
released for general use.  In general, the text of Program Notes will
be kept in computer files available to those who need  them.    Their
creation   and   modification  will  be  the  responsibility  of  the
originator, but they should adhere to the format constraints given in
Appendix A7, below.

When  analyzing  statistics  such  as  those  of  Figure  1-1,  it is
traditional to observe  that  the  populations  of  both  people  and
publications  are  increasing  exponentially  with  time.  Using this
assumption and making a least-squared-log fit to  the  data,  we  may
extrapolate to the year 2001, as shown in Figure 1-2.


		Calendar Year                     2001

		Salaried Staff (January)   157,911,246

		External Publications   28,867,037,200

		Film Reports                   116,772

		Ph.D. Theses                     5,726

		Other A.I. Memos	           270

		SAILONs                     17,552,813

It is encouraging to note that we will have over 157 million salaried
staff   members   on   the  project,  but  consider  the  publication
responsibilities!   Each staff member will have to write  an  average
of  182  journal  articles  per  year.   It would appear that by that
time,  nearly  all  U.S.   publishing  will  originate  in  the  A.I.
Project.  In  anticipation  of  this  awesome responsibility, we must
automate document production as fully as possible.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-1

2.  Existing Services

Our existing  document  production  methods  are  a  mixture  of  the
traditional approach (scribble-type-reproduce) and newer alternatives
(edit and  list  using  the  computer).   The  choice  of  method  is
controlled  by  the  capabilities,  limitations, and economics of the
alternatives.   This  section  analyzes available methods of document
production, reproduction, and maintenance, and the associated costs.

    2A.  Production

The basic alternatives for document production are typing on paper or
editing a text file on the computer.  For one-shot  production  of  a
document,  typing  is  usually  faster  and cheaper.  There is also a
larger character set available  with  typewriters,  using  changeable
keys  and  Typits.   Appendix  A  lists  the typewriter character set
available at the A.I. Project.

In  cases  where the text will be modified, it may be advantagious to
use a computer text editor.   The best one around currently  is  SOS,
which  includes  interactive  text  justification (Reference 1).  The
computer character set is given in Appendix B.

Special  page  headings  and  page numbers such as those used in this
note may be added by running the text file through the XEROX  program
(Reference  10).  Another  way  of getting justified text, optionally
with multiple columns, is to run it through the text  justifier  (TJ,
Reference 2).

If you wish to  replicate  a  piece  of  text  with  sets  of  string
substitutions  (e.g.  a  form  letter  to  a number of addressees), a
rudimentary program for doing this exists (Freeforol, Reference 3).

Line drawings may be prepared in any of several ways:
	1.  directly on paper or
	2.  through the computer
	    a) by  preparing  a  vector  display  (e. g.  using  PIX,
	       Reference 7) and photographing it,
	    b) by composing a text file that approximates the desired
	       line drawing (Figure 2-1 is an example), or
	    c) by writing a special program to drive the Calcomp
Better computer graphics facilities are planned (see Sections 3B, 3D,
3H and 3I below).
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-2

                  Figure 2-1  LINE DRAWING EXAMPLE

     | |
     | |
|           |
|  Display  |                                                  Type 167
| Interface |                                                Data Channel
|___________|                                                        ↑
     | |                                                             |
     | |                                                             |
 ____↓_↓____      sync.                                              |
|           |_____________________________________                   |
| Data Disc |     ___       ___↓____   |   _↓__↓__↓_    __________   |
|  Display  |    /   \     |        |  |  |         |  |          |  |
| Generator |----  8  ----→| Video  |  |  | Cameras |  |   Cart   |  |
|___________|    \___/     | Synth. |  |  |         |  | Receiver |  |
      |                    |________|  |  |_________|  |__________|  |
      |                        |       |    |  |  |         |        |
     _|_                       |       |    |  |  |         |        |
    /   \                   ___↓_______↓____↓__↓__↓_________↓___     |
   | 24  |                 |                                    |    |
    \___/                  |           Video Switch             |    |
      |                    |____________________________________|    |
      |                                      |          |            |
      |                                     _|_      ___↓____________|__
      |                                    /   \    |                   |
      |                                   | 25  |   |  Camera Interface |
      |                                    \___/    |___________________|
 _____↓_____                                 |
|           |     ___       _________________↓__________________
|  Digital  |    /   \     |                                    |
|   Mixer   |---- 25  ----→|           Final Mixers             |
|___________|    \___/     |____________________________________|
                                            _|_     _____________
                                           /   \   |             |
                                          | 25  |-→| Patch Panel |
                                           \___/   |_____________|
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-3

The  equipment  costs  associated  with  alternative text preparation
methods are given in Figure  2-2.   The  allocation  of  charges  for
PDP-10 terminals between fixed monthly cost and hourly operating cost
is somewhat arbitrary, inasmuch as most of  the  equipment  has  been
purchased. Assuming terminal utilization of 120 hours per month (e.g.
6 hours per day for 20 days per month), the total monthly costs would
be as shown in the right column. In actual practice, the displays are
used over 300 hours per month, while the teletypes and IBM  2741  are
used less than 80 hours.

       Figure 2-2  Text Preparation Equipment

The basis for these estimates is given in Appendix D1.

                                          Operating  Total Cost
                            Fixed Cost       Cost    (120 hr/mo)
  IBM Model D and related
    equipment	              $16.15/mo     $ .16/hr $ 42/mo

AI PDP-10 Terminals
  Model 33 Teletype at         37.21         1.00     157
    A.I. Lab
  Model 33 Teletype at         60.20         1.00*    180
    remote phone
  Model 37 Teletype at         54.89         1.00     175
    A.I. Lab
  ARDS Terminal at            273.50         1.50     454
    A.I. Lab
  III Display Terminal        361.55         1.50     542
    at A.I. Lab
  DD Display Terminal          60.60         1.50     241
    at A.I. Lab

SCC 360/67 Terminal
  IBM 2741 at A.I. Lab        153.87         5.00     754

*Plus any message unit or long distance charges.  In  operating  from
Saratoga,  California, for example, add $2.60 per hour.  From Boston,
Massachusetts, add $20.00 per hour at night, $34.00 days.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-4

In analizing the  cost  of  text  preparation,  personnel  costs  and
productivity   should  be  taken  into  account.   Figure  2-3  gives
estimates of the the cost per page of  text  prepared  using  certain
devices.    The estimates of productivity are based on rather limited
observations and reflect the following considerations.

1.  Typewriter text preparation is relatively fast for a good typist.
Of  course,  any substantial blunder may force the retyping of one or
more pages of text.

2.   The Teletypes and IBM 2741 terminals  avoid  extensive  retyping
for  error  correction,  but  text  is  occasionally lost in computer
failures.    In addition, the typist is slowed by the printing  of  a
line number after every carriage return.

3.   Conventional  text preparation on a Model 33 Teletype is further
slowed by its speed limitation (10 characters  per  second)  and  the
need   to   transliterate  case  shifts  into  special  two-character
combinations .  The latter feature is particularly troublesome in the
preparation of tabular formats.

4.   Displays  offer  the  best  of  both worlds, except for computer

Figure 2-3 suggests that one-shot text production can  be  done  most
efficiently  on a typewriter, but that for text that is to be revised
it is less expensive to use a computer terminal.

          Figure 2-3   Text Preparation Cost

                          Equipment +     Typical       Cost Per
                          Typist Cost*  Productivity      Page
  IBM Model D                $6.35/hr     6 pages/hr      $1.06

AI PDP-10 Terminals
  Model 33 TTY                7.31        3.5              2.09
  Model 37 TTY                7.46        5                1.49
  III Display                10.52        7                1.50
  DD Display                  8.01        7                1.14

SCC 360/67 Terminal
  IBM 2741                   12.28        5                2.46

*Assumptions: typist costs $6.00 per hour  (including  overhead)  and
the device is used 120 hours per month.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-5

Note  that the costs considered above are all "average", representing
the  sum  of  fixed  costs  and  variable  costs  based  on   average
utilization.  This is the appropriate measure to consider in deciding
which kind of equipment  to  procure  to  do  a  given  job,  but  is
inappropriate  for  short-range  questions  such  as "How should this
document be typed?".  For such questions, one  should  consider  only
marginal  costs (i.e. the incremental costs associated with using the
various devices, given that they are available) and productivity.

In  the  A.I.  Laboratory,  since  nearly  all the equipment has been
purchased, the marginal costs are negligible except for the IBM 2741.
Thus,  the  best  way  to  prepare text is to use the most productive
device that is available.  In particular, you should choose the first
available device on the following list:
	1)  a display,
       2a)  if "one-shot" text, a typewriter, or
       2b)  if text to be revised, a Model 37 Teletype,
	3)  a Model 33 Teletype
	4)  a typewriter.

    2B.  Reproduction

The  salient  factors  controlling  choice of reproduction method are
copy quality, time and  cost.   There  are  four  basic  reproduction
processes  readily  available to us: computer line printers, computer
terminals, xerox copiers, and offset printers.  While there are  some
differences  in  copy  quality  among  these  alternatives,  all  are
adequate for Project publications.

Figure 2-4 lists the cost and time for certain numbers of copies of a
single  original  page,  which  is assumed to hold about 600 words of
text, including both upper and  lower  case  characters.   The  times
given  are  for  a  document  originating  and  ending  in  the  A.I.
Laboratory and include any necessary travel to or from campus.

On the basis of average cost, the A.I. Xerox machine is cheapest  for
runs of up to 7 copies, where offset printing takes over.

Given  that  all  these  services  exist,  of  course, we should make
day-to-day choices of copying method on the basis of  marginal  costs
(i.e.  neglecting  fixed costs, such as personnel time, and equipment
purchase costs or monthly rental).  It is seen from Figure  2-4  that
on  this  basis, the Model 37 Teletype is cheapest, if you can afford
to wait.  While the Model 37 generally has better print quality  (and
smaller  character  set)  than the line printer, its printing rate of
about 15 pages per hour makes it impractical for any but  very  short

The  line  printer, which prints about 6 pages/minute, is a practical
choice up to about 1000 copies (2.8  hours),  where  offset  printing
becomes more economical and usually faster as well.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-6

                  Figure 2-4  Cost of Reproducing One Original Page

                The basis for these estimates is given in Appendix D2.

Method                         Number of Copies

                   1    5   10   20    50     100    200    500   1000    2000     Time
AI Line Printer
         (ave.)  .15  .44  .79  1.50  3.63    7.18  14.    36.    71.    142.      6 pages/min
        (marg.)  .02  .05  .08   .14   .34     .66   1.30   3.22   6.42   13.     

SCC Line Print. 6.50 6.50 6.50  6.50  8.50   10.50  16.    31.    50.     73.      1-24 hours

AI Teletype (37)
         (ave.)  .53 2.37 4.67  9.27 23.     46.    92.   230.   460.    920.      15 pages/hr
        (marg.)  .01  .02  .03   .06   .15     .30    .60   1.50   3.      6.  
SCC Terminal (2741)
         (ave.)  .85 3.81 7.51 15.   37.     74.   148.   370.   740.   1480.      15 pages/hr
        (marg.)  .31 1.35 2.65  5.25 13.     26.    52.   130.   260.    520.  
AI Xerox
         (ave.)  .11  .34  .59   .98  2.15    4.10   8.    20.    39.     78.      12 pages/min
        (marg.)  .05  .22  .39   .63  1.35    2.55   4.95  12.    24.     48.  

SCC Xerox        .10  .50 1.00  1.75  3.25    5.75  10.75  26.    51.    101.      1-24 hours

SCC Offset      1.93 1.93 1.93  1.93  1.93    1.93   2.33   4.25   5.85   11.30    2-48 hours

SEL Offset      3.75 3.75 3.75  3.75  3.75    3.75   4.13   4.88   6.38   12.25    2-48 hours

SPR Offset       .36  .40  .45   .55   .85    1.35   2.35   5.35   7.70   12.90    2-48 hours

NOTE:	AI = Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project
        SCC = Stanford Computation Center
        SEL = Stanford Electronic Laboratories
        SPR = Stanford Photo Reproduction Services
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-7

If  the  page  must be reproduced from hard copy, then Xerox is least
expensive up to about 15 copies, where offset takes  over.    If  you
are  in  a hurry for 200 copies, however, A.I. Xerox costs only $2.60
more than offset. Counting travel time, Xerox is the  fastest  method
available to us for up to about 1000 copies, where offset takes over.

In  reproducing  reports, there are additional costs of collating and
binding.   Figure 2-5 shows the cost of making 200 copies of  several
report  sizes,  which is a typical run for the A.I.  Project.   It is
seen that on an average cost basis, SEL offset is least expensive  in
all cases.

On  a marginal cost basis, the A.I. line printer is shown to be least
expensive in all cases, but the assumption of  non-interference  with
other   functions   of   the   line  printer  and  personnel  becomes
implausible, even for a report of only 10 pages.   The  line  printer
time  would  be  over  5.5  hours  for this case and someone would be
fairly busy throughout the time bursting, trimming, and stapling  the
reports.   All  things  considered,  offset printing is generally the
more practical way to reproduce reports.  The cost  per  copy  ranges
from $ .17 for a 10 page report to $1.91 for a 200 page report.   For
any size report, the cost of adding one more page (in a 200 copy run)
is about $1.75.

            Figure 2-5  Cost of 200 Copies of a Report

     The basis for these estimates is given in Appendix D3.

     Method				Report Pages

                           10       50      100      200
     AI line printer
     	     (ave.)      $142      $710    $1420    $1840
            (marg.)        13        74      148      286
     AI Xerox
     	     (ave.)        89       448      896     1792
            (marg.)        50       248      495      990

     SCC Xerox            128       576     1176     2353

     SCC Offset            44       168      301      583

     SEL Offset            33       103      196      381

     GL Offset            100       137      269      533

NOTE:	GL=George Lithography (a commercial printer)
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-8

    2C  Maintenance

Throughout the useful life of a report, copies must be kept available
for  those who need them and corrections or modifications may have to
be made.  In the past,  we  have  used  three  different  maintenance
procedures,  which I shall call "batch print", "revise and copy", and
"cumulative supplement".  Each of  these  has  shortcomings  in  some
cases,  as  discussed  below.  Another  scheme  that  may  be  termed
"automatic update" is proposed subsequently.

Under a straight "batch print" approach, enough  copies  are  printed
initially  to  satisfy immediate and foreseeable needs.  If these run
out or if the document is revised, then a new batch is printed.

When using "revise and copy", at most a few copies are kept on  hand.
The text is kept up-to-date in a computer file or on paper and copies
are made as needed, using the line printer or Xerox copier.

The "cumulative supplement" approach begins with  a  batch  printing.
All changes are accumulated in a supplementary document, which may be
maintained by either the "batch print" or "revise and  copy"  method.
When the original report supply is exhausted, it is revised and batch
printed again.

The selection of a maintenance procedure should take into account the
size  and stability of the document.  If we define a "large" document
to be one over 15 pages and take "stable" to mean that it is  revised
less  frequently  than once every six months, then our A.I. Memos are
nearly all large and stable.  SAILONs are both large  and  small  and
mostly unstable.  Program Notes are mostly small and unstable.

For stable documents, the "batch print" and  "cumulative  supplement"
methods work rather well.  We employ these procedures for A.I. Memos.

For small unstable documents the "revise and  copy"  procedure  works
well and has been used for both SAILONs and Program Notes.

Large unstable  documents  are  relatively  troublesome.  The  "batch
print" method often requires substantial inventories to be sacrificed
at revision time.  In addition, holders get new copies and throw away
the old one, even though its content may be largely correct.

"Revise and copy" for large unstable documents requires long Xerox or
line  printer runs.  The Xerox approach is quite expensive, while the
programming community regards long line printer runs as antisocial or

The  "cumulative supplement" method is fairly economical, but has two
annoying features:
    1)  the  author  must  make  all  changes  twice, once in the
    supplement and again in the main document at revision time;
    2)  if the reader wishes to keep the main document up-to-date,
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services              2-9

    then  for each change  he must enter  in  the  main  document
    either the change or a  reference  to the appropriate part of
    the supplement.

I believe that an "automatic update" approach to the  maintenance  of
our  large  unstable  documents can be made to work more efficiently.
The proposed procedure is as follows:

    1) The document is prepared initially with each major section
    starting  on  a  new  page  and  with  separate  page  number
    sequences  for  each  such  section   (e. g.  in   the   form
    <section number>-<page number>).  It is batch printed in  the
    usual way.

    2)  As  corrections  or  changes  are  made, they are kept in
    context in a computer text file.

    3) An additional computer file is maintained that records for
    each set of changes in the date and pages that are affected.

    4) An updating program will allow users to request changes to
    selected documents subsequent to a given revision  number  or
    date  and  will print all (and only) the affected pages.  All
    revisions are reflected in the front page, which contains the
    revised  number and date.  Thus, the currency of the document
    can be determined by inspecting just the first page.

    5) Whenever the main document  inventory  is  exhausted,  the
    latest version is batch printed.

This  will  allow  readers  to  keep  their manuals up-to-date with a
minimum of effort  and  online  printing.  The  key  element  of  the
procedure  is the update program, which is now operational (Reference

Document maintainence policies should take into account the  cost  of
storing  documents.   Figure  2-6 gives unit capacities and costs for
several media and the approximate monthly cost of storing a 200  page
report in the various forms.   As might be expected, storage in paper
form is relatively  inexpensive,  but  magnetic  tape  is  nearly  as
economical.    In  cases  where the alternatives are to keep just one
copy on magnetic tape or a number of paper copies, then magnetic tape
is markedly cheaper.

It can be seen from Figure 2-6  that  the  cost  of  keeping  sizable
reports  online (in disk files) is rather high.  This argues in favor
of keeping the full  text  of  large  documents  off  line  (say,  on
magnetic tape or Dectape), while keeping small reports and correction
pages for large ones  online.   I  propose  that  we  keep  documents
shorter  than 15 pages online, which would keep the effective storage
cost for each below $2.25 per month.

SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services             2-10

             Figure 2-6  Document Storage

   The basis of these estimates is given in Appendix D4.

                      Unit       Marginal       200 Page Report
Medium              Capacity*    Cost/Page       Storage Cost

Paper in file
    cabinet       12,000 pages  $.00025/mo.        $.05/mo.

AI mag tape        1,853         .00030             .06

SCC mag tape       3,200         .00063             .13

AI Dectape           410         .0010              .20

AI disc pack       4,267         .0037              .74
SCC disk pack      5,990         .0067             1.34
AI disc file      21,333         .15              30.

SCC disk track         1.6       .28              56.

*Assumptions:  1)  an average of 3,600 characters per page,
               2)  file  cabinet  and  tapes are half full, while
               disk packs are 75% full.

It  may  be  desirable  to  keep  a  few large texts online (e.g. the
monitor manuals), but these will be treated as exceptions.

In  anticipation  of   employing   more   online   documentation,   a
pseudo-programmer  named  DOC  has been invented.  All of DOC's files
contain  documentation  of  some  sort.      The   project-programmer
combinations that have been defined to date are as follows.

[1,DOC]  contains  a  directory  to other DOC file areas (in DIR) and
will have other files of general interest,  including  a  summary  of
current  A.I.  Project activities and various bibliographies (such as
lists of A.I. Memos, film reports, and SAILONs).

[S,DOC]  contains  computer  system  documentation,  including   some
SAILONs,  corrections  to others, and all Program Notes that describe
SYS programs (i.e. that reside in the CUSP file area [1,3]).

[NEW,DOC]  contains  files  that  list changes in documents stored in
[S,DOC], for use by the Manual Lister (Reference 5).
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;         Existing Services             2-11

[UP,DOC] contains Program Notes describing  user  programs  that  are
available  for  limited  use.   Programs  described  in  [UP,DOC] are
generally kept in the author's file area rather than in  SYS.   Users
understand  that  such  programs  may  be changed at any time without

[P,DOC] contains personnel lists of various sorts, such  as  a  phone
list,  a  programmer list, the distribution lists for A.I. Abstracts,
and  lists  of  certain  equipment  manufacturers  and  their   local
representatives.  For the present, any changes to these files must be
channeled through the Project Secretary. (Changes  made  directly  in
the file will automatically disappear the next time it is revised.)

Other specialized file areas will be set up as needed and recorded in

In  order to keep the document files straight, some additional naming
conventions are needed.  It  is  proposed  that  the  file  name  and
extension be interpreted as
             <program name>.<document type>
where <document type> is "AIM" for A.I. Memos, "ON" for SAILONs,  and
<author's  initials>  for  Program  Notes.  This will permit users to
obtain quite a bit of infromation from a directory listing.

To permit  continued  operation  without  file  protection  or  other
controls on the DOC files, certain protocols must be observed.

1) No one other than the author or his proxy may alter  a  DOC  file.
If  you  wish to take exception to something in an existing file, you
may create a dissenting file having the same name,  but  a  different
extension.    The  extension may be your intitials, or may be used to
express your degree of dissent (examples:  POO, FOO, or URP).  In the
latter  case  it is important that you identify yourself in the file.
Hopefully,  some  resolution  of  views  and  merger  of  files  will
eventually come about through dialogue between interested parties.

2) To protect against accidental alterations, each author is expected
to  keep  a  private copy of his text files in a safe place.  This is
particularly important at present, since the only means we  have  for
perusing text files are editing programs, which can alter the file if
a typing error is made.  Better perusal programs are planned.

3) Computer users are asked  not  to  list  entire  text  files  when
printed  versions  already  exist.   In cases where a large amount of
listing is necessary, it should be broken into runs of no  more  than
10 minutes, so that other users may get short listings in between.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-1

3.  Planned and Proposed Services

Several equipment acquisitions are planned for the near future and  a
number  of  programs  are  proposed  that  will  facilitate  document

    3A.  New Displays and Memory

The  planned  acquisition  of  twenty-some new display terminals will
facilitate online text preparation.  The primary system bottleneck is
expected to move to the central processor and core memories.  We hope
to acquire sufficient funding to obtain an additional 131K words of 1
microsecond  core  memory, which should permit the PDP-10 to be fully
utilized.  Just how many online users the  system  will  be  able  to
support  is  unknown, but it should be at least 30.  If we can resist
the urge to let more people in, this should be quite adequate.

STATUS:  it is hoped that the new local display  system  based  on  a
Data  Disc  display  generator  will be at least marginally usable by
March 1970.   The funding  of  the  core  memories  is  uncertain  at

    3B.  Photographic Terminal

A  display  terminal  is  being  constructed to synthesize gray-scale
pictures for photographic output. A  synthesizer  generates  pictures
from computer data with resolution up to 4096x4096 points (though the
scope exhibits only about 1500x1000 distinct  points)  and  512  gray
scale steps.  It displays the results on the Tektronix Type 611 scope
(part of the ARDS terminal)  in  nonstorage  mode.   The  synthesizer
connects to the DEC Type 136 in the Kludge bay.

Raster size and resolution are controlled by the computer.  The  gray
scale is generated by varying the speed with which the beam is moved,
rather than by modulating the  beam  current  as  in  a  conventional
television monitor.

A  computer  controlled  switch  determines  whether  the  scope   is
listening   to   the   synthesizer   or   the  ARDS.    This  permits
ARDS-generated labels to be added to photographs.   It  has  recently
been  discovered  that  if the synthesizer has cycled a few times and
the scope is then switched to storage mode,  a  stable  picture  with
some gray scale results.

STATUS:  L. Quam  has  built  it  and it works.  There is some system
programming yet to be done.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-2

    3C.  ARPA Network

A  store-and-forward  communication  network linking a number of ARPA
contractors is under development.  It employs 50,000 bit/second links,
with  each  site  connected to two or three others. A small processor
(Honeywell DDP-516) called an IMP (for Interface Message  Processor),
is  provided  at each site to perform the communication functions and
talk to the host computer.

When we join this network, we will have indirect access to  a  number
of  services  and  facilities  in  other research centers, subject to
bilateral negotiation.   Among  the  20  or  so  groups  expected  to
participate  are  the  A.I.   Projects  at  M.I.T.  and Carnegie, the
Illinois group with their Illiac IV  kludge,  and  our  neighbors  at
S.R.I.    The  latter  group plans to offer a number of documentation

STATUS:   A  4  node  network  linking  S.R.I.,  U.C.  Santa Barbara,
U.C.L.A., and the University of Utah has just commenced  experimental
operation.  We are scheduled to join the network in July 1970.

    3D.  Display Editors and Perusers

While SOS is among the best teletype editors in existence  today,  it
does  not  adequately  exploit the capabilities of display terminals.
For example, the results of text alterations  are  not  always  shown
directly.  A  proper  display editor is needed that shows up to three
segments of text simultaneously  and  allows  the  operator  to  move
cursors around quickly to effect editing functions.

There  is  also  a need for a display program for perusing text files
without altering them.  This can probably best be realized through  a
subset of the display editor commands.  Perhaps it should be the same
program, operating in read-only mode.

A related but independent need is the ability to  create  and  modify
line drawings, a la Sketchpad.  I believe that a good graphics editor
should be able to accept picture definitions from a scorpion,  mouse,
light  pens,  or  a  suitable graphical description entered through a
keyboard.  The product of this editor would be  a  representation  of
text  and graphics in an internal graphics language (about which more

A   still   more  elegant  editor  would  permit  the  definition  of
three-dimensional objects and would provide for their display  either
as  perspective  line  drawings  or  as  shaded pictures similar to a
photograph, as is being done at the University of Utah.

STATUS:  R. Neeley has written a graphics editor called PIX that uses
scorpion  inputs to generate line drawings in the form of III display
code (Reference 7). S.  Savitzkey claims to be designing a new  super
editor  that  will  exploit  the displays.  B. Baumgart is working on
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-3

programs for the generation of perspective line drawings  and  shaded

    3E.  Document Compiler

While  the  text  justifiers  in  TJ  and SOS avoid certain chores in
document production, they still leave many cross-referencing tasks to
the  author  or typist.  In particular, references to other sections,
appendices, bibliographic entries, footnotes, or page numbers must be
entered  by the preparer. Any alterations of the text are then likely
to produce erroneous cross-references unless a careful search is made
for those that may have changed.

A  better  way  to  handle this would be to provide labels similar to
those used in programming and permit other portions of  the  document
to  refer  to  the  page, section, reference, or whatever, in which a
given label appears. The labels would not, in general appear  in  the
compiled text.

Another   bookkeeping  function  that  should  be  automated  is  the
numbering of sections, figures, equations, footnotes, and references.
The  compiler should permit the author to choose his own numbering or
lettering schemes and hierarchy (e.g.  subsections,  sub-subsections,
etc.).   With  these facilities, the production of tables of contents
and indexes could be made semi-automatic.

The document compiler should permit flexible control of  layouts  and
should  provide  for  the inclusion of line drawings and photographs.
Ideally, it would be linked interactively with a display  editor,  so
that  the  user could see directly the results of his alterations and
make further changes as needed.

STATUS:   D.  Swinehart has written a program that does some of these
things and some others that are specialized to his SAIL documentation
project.    For  understandable  reasons,  he is unlikely to continue
working in this area.  Therefore, the document  compiler  is  up  for

    3F.  Formatted File Processor

There are a number of problems that can best be handled  through  the
creation  and manipulation of formatted text files.  Examples include
bibliography compilation, phone list maintenance, budget preparation,
and the distribution of reports or abstracts to interested persons.

Our  existing  text  editors can be used to create formatted files of
various sorts, but  we  need  a  file  processing  program  with  the
following properties.

1)  A  versatile  scanner  that  can  read variable-length records in
assorted formats;
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-4

2) facilities for error-checking and  interactively  correcting  file

3) sort and merge capabilities;

4)  a  limited  ability to transform portions of records and to count
instances or  sum  fields  either  over  the  whole  file  or  within
subfiles; and

5)  a  flexible  report  generator that permits selected fields to be
embedded in arbitrary text for output.

A formatted file "peruser" is needed for interactively searching  and
updating  existing  files.    This program would use many of the same
functions  outlined  above  and,  when  operated,  would  generate  a
transaction  log,  which  is  another formatted file that records the
searches that have been performed and the changes that have been made
in  the  information  files.   The transaction log would be processed
later to determine such things as which kinds  of  information  files
are  used  the  most  and  which  not  at  all.  It would also permit
information files to be restored when foolish or  malevolent  changes
are discovered.

STATUS:   The  existing  FREEFOROL  program  (Reference 3) has only a
restricted scanner and a modest report generator.  L. Earnest  claims
to  be  writing a new program that will perform the first set of file
processing functions outlined above.  The peruser may follow later.

    3G.  Spelling Checker

Another  useful  program  would  be  one  that scans text looking for
misspelled words or simple syntactic errors. This program would  work
interactively,  using  a large dictionary, and display in context any
words that are not recognized.  The operator could then take  one  of
the following actions:

1) approve this instance of the word only,

2)  approve the word for this document, causing it to be entered in a
temporary  dictionary  such  that  subsequent  occurrences  will   be

3)  approve  the  word for all documents, causing it to be entered in
the master dictionary;

4) correct the word and specify that any subsequent occurrences  will
be automatically corrected in the same way; or

5)  correct  the word and specify that any subsequent occurrences are
to be reviewed.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-5

This program could also check for such things  as  capitalization  of
the   first  letter  of  a  sentence  or  certain  kinds  of  erratic

Whenever new words are added to the master dictionary or misspellings
are  corrected,  this  information  would be entered in a transaction
log.  This log would subsequently be reviewed  to  double  check  the
accuracy  of new dictionary entries and to permit common misspellings
to  be  entered  in  another  file.   This  misspelling  file   could
subsequently  be  used by the spelling checker to prompt the user, as
in "Shall I change `supercede' to `supersede'?".

Another  possible  byproduct of this program would be a a concordance
(i.e. for each word, a list of  the  places  it  is  used).   If  the
dictionary  distinguished  common and uncommon words, the concordance
could be compiled just for the latter, which could aid in creating an
index to the document.

STATUS:    One   element  of  the  proposed  system  already  exists:
L. Earnest has on Dectape a list of the 10,000 most  frequently  used
English  words, exluding proper nouns, and the frequency of each.  No
one is working on a spelling  checker  currently.    A  volunteer  is

    3H.  Microfilm Output

There are commercial services that accept  magnetic  tape  containing
digital  descriptions of text and line drawings and produce microfilm
images.  If we write programs to generate tapes in the right  format,
we  will  be  able  to  produce finished documents in this form.  The
microfilm images can, in turn, be  transferred  to  mats  for  offset
printing.  Animated films may also be generated in this way.

George  Lithography  of  San  Francisco offers microfilm service on a
Digigraphix 4060 with about 2 day turnaround.  They  have  a  set  of
FORTRAN  routines  designed  for  use  with 360 systems that generate
tapes in the right format.  In order to use  their  system,  we  must
either  modify the FORTRAN routines to work with our character set or
write a new set of routines.

STATUS:  Documentation  on  the  Digigraphix  4060  and  the  FORTRAN
routines is in our hands, but no one is working on it yet.

    3I.  Graphics Language and Processors

We have a standard internal character set (Appendix B, below)  and  a
de  facto  standard  text  file  format  (SAILON  50.1,  Appendix 4).
Neither the internal character set nor the STOPGAP text format  fully
exploit   the   capabilities  of  all  character-oriented  peripheral
devices, but they are adequate for most tasks.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;   Planned and Proposed Services        3-6

We  are  making  increasing  use  of  line  drawings  and   pictorial
information  in our work.  It would be most advantageous, I think, if
we  could  agree  on  standard  internal  representations  for  these
entities. Ideally this standard would permit the description of text,
line drawings, pictures, or mixtures thereof.  It  need  not  exploit
all  the  capabilities  of our various display devices, but should be
sufficiently flexible to handle most tasks.

I believe that a graphics language should be developed that does  not
rigidly  specify  formats  but  rather  permits  the  description  of
whatever format is used.  If we agree on  such  a  language,  we  can
write  one  set  of  standard  processors  that will output graphical
material to the various devices, rather than  having  to  write  them
into each program.

The line printer processor, for example, might have several modes. In
one mode, it would print just the text and hand over any non-standard
characters or line drawings to a  Calcomp  program,  while  pictorial
data  would  go  to  the  photographic  terminal. The user could then
overlay the printer output with the Calcomp plot (taking advantage of
the  translucence of the Calcomp paper) and then paste on photographs
where appropriate. Alternatively, the entire file could be  processed
onto magnetic tape for offline generation of microfilm.

In another mode, a "quick and dirty" version of a document  could  be
produced  by  converting  line  drawings  to  combinations of graphic
characters, such as underbar, vertical  bar,  slash,  and  backslash.
Similarly, pictorial data would be approximated by overprinting black
regions a number of times, while representing  lighter  regions  with
less  dense characters, as we do now for wall hangings.  This version
could then be produced on the line printer alone.

If  we  are able to devise a workable graphics language, it is likely
to have some influence on  information  exchange  procedures  in  the
proposed  ARPA network.  If we do not devise such a language, we will
likely have to accept some other group's bad ideas.

STATUS:  Various people (including me) talk about this  problem,  but
no one seems to be doing anything.

4.  Conclusions

Our  collective  documentation  services  are improving, but there is
much work to be done.  Volunteers are solicited,  especially  on  the
under-  (or  un-)  commited tasks, namely a graphics editor, document
compiler, spelling checker, microfilm output, and  graphics  language
with processors.


                             APPENDIX A
                      TYPEWRITER CHARACTER SET

[Appendix A may be obtained from the Project Secretary.]
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;      Computer Character Set            B-1

                             APPENDIX B
                       Computer Character Set

	There are 128 characters in the  A.  I.  Laboratory  internal
character  set.  Most  peripheral  devices are not able to produce or
accept all 128 characters and use codes that are  slightly  different
from  the internal set. The time sharing monitor does code conversion
on both input and output, as needed,  so  the  programmer  ordinarily
need not be concerned with the peripheral codes.

    B1.  Internal Character Set

	The internal character  set  and  corresponding  7-bit  octal
codes are given in Figure B-1.

              Figure B-1  STANFORD A. I. CHARACTER SET

 0  NULL	  40    (space)	    100  @ (at)	      140  ` (accent)
 1  ↓ (dn arrow)  41  ! (exclam)    101  A	      141  a
 2  α (alpha)	  42  " (quote)	    102  B	      142  b
 3  β (beta)	  43  # (sharp)     103  C	      143  c
 4  ∧ (and)	  44  $ (dollar)    104  D	      144  d
 5  ¬ (not)	  45  % (percent)   105  E	      145  e
 6  ε (epsilon)	  46  & (ampersand) 106  F	      146  f
 7  π (pi)	  47  ' (apostrophe)107  G	      147  g

10  λ (lambda)	  50  ( (l paren)   110  H	      150  h
11  TAB		  51  ) (r paren)   111  I	      151  i
12  LINE	  52  * (star)	    112  J	      152  j
13  VTAB	  53  + (plus)	    113  K	      153  k
14  FORM	  54  , (comma)	    114  L	      154  l
15  RETURN	  55  - (minus)	    115  M	      155  m
16  ∞ (infinity)  56  . (period)    116  N	      156  n
17  ∂ (partial)	  57  / (slash)	    117  O	      157  o

20  ⊂ (contains)  60  0		    120  P	      160  p
21  ⊃ (implies)	  61  1		    121  Q	      161  q
22  ∩ (intersect) 62  2		    122  R	      162  r
23  ∪ (union)	  63  3		    123  S	      163  s
24  ∀ (for all)	  64  4		    124  T	      164  t
25  ∃ (exists)	  65  5		    125  U	      165  u
26  ⊗ (circle x)  66  6		    126  V	      166  v
27  ↔ (dbl arrow) 67  7		    127  W	      167  w

30  _ (underbar)  70  8		    130  X	      170  x
31  → (rt arrow)  71  9		    131  Y	      171  y
32  ~ (tilde)	  72  : (colon)	    132  Z	      172  z
33  ≠ (not eq)	  73  ; (semicolon) 133  [ (l bracket)173  { (l brace)
34  ≤ (less eq)	  74  < (less)	    134  \ (backslash)174  | (v bar)
35  ≥ (grtr eq)	  75  = (equal)	    135  ] (r bracket)175  ALT
36  ≡ (identical) 76  > (greater)   136  ↑ (up arrow) 176  } (r brace)
37  ∨ (or)	  77  ? (question)  137  ← (l arrow)  177  DELETE
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;      Computer Character Set            B-2

The  internal  code  is  identical  to  USASCII  with  the  following

	Code(s)		USASCII
	1-10		<control characters>
	16-37		<control characters>
	136		<circumflex>
	137		_
	175		}
	176		<overbar>

Note that circumflex and  overbar  do  not  appear  in  the  internal
character set, while "_", "}" have been moved to other codes.

    B2.  Control Characters

There are a number of control characters that,  when  keyed  in,  are
absorbed  and  acted  upon by the timesharing monitor.  See SAILON-54
for details.

On output, the nine control characters are acted upon as follows:

NULL -	no effect.  This character is  used  internally  to  pad  out
        unused portions of words.
TAB  -	move right to the first column evenly divisible by 8.
LINE -	line feed (moves  paper  up  one  line).   The  line  printer
        automatically  skips  to line 7 of the next page if past line
        60 of the current one.
VTAB -	vertical tab.  Not generally used, but teletypes and displays
        are programmed to skip 4 lines, while the line printer  skips
        to line 7, 25, or 43, whichever is next.
FORM -	form feed.  Teletypes and displays skip 8  lines,  while  the
        line printer skips to the top of the next page.
RETURN- carriage return (moves print position to  the  left  margin).
        Must be used with LINE if paper is to be advanced.
SPACE- 	usual meaning.
ALT  -	no effect.  Used mainly as an input control character in user
DELETE- no effect except for line printer, which interprets  this  as
        an  escape code and causes the next character only to have an
        alternative meaning, as follows:

Code	Internal char.	Alternative meaning
0	NULL		prints <center dot>	
11	TAB		prints <lower case gamma>
12	LINE		prints <lower case delta>
13	VTAB		prints <integral sign>
14	FORM		prints <plus or minus>
15	RETURN		prints <circle plus>
20	⊂		skip to channel 2 (normally equivalent
			to VTAB)
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;      Computer Character Set            B-3

21	⊃		skip to channel 3 (normally equivalent
			to LINE but without automatic form feed)
22	∩		skip to channel 4 (normally equivalent
			to VTAB)
23	∪		skip to channel 5 (normally equivalent
			to VTAB)
24	∀		skip to channel 6 (normally equivalent
			to VTAB
177	DELETE		prints "/"

All  other characters are unchanged. The "channels" referred to above
are channels in the line printer's control tape.

In addition to the above control codes, the ARDS interprets a  number
of  characters in the left column of Figure B-1 in special ways.  See
SAILON-56 for details.

B3  Printed Characters

The printed character set of our Teletype Model 33 and 35  correspond
to  the middle two columns of Figure B-1 (i.e. codes 40 through 137).
The Model 37 and ARDS print the right three columns (codes 40 through
177),  except  that the ARDS substitutes "_" for "←" and <circumflex>
for "↑".

The  printed  characters  of the III and DD displays and line printer
include the entire internal set.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-1

                         APPENDIX C.  Media

Project  documentation  may  take any of several forms, each with its
own controls and format.  The principal alternatives are given below,
roughly in order of decreasing formality.

    C1.  External Publications

PURPOSE:   communicate  research  results  to  the   scientific   and
technological communities.

CONTROLS:   content of the article or paper should be reviewed by the
research supervisor, if different from the author.  When sending  off
for publication, it is important that the author retain a copy of the
paper, to prevent loss and insure that unauthorized changes  are  not

FORMAT:   determined by the publication.  The first page must contain
a sponsor acknowledgement, where

<sponsor acknowledgement>→ The research reported here  was  supported
                           in part by <sponsor>.

<sponsor>→ The Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Office of the
           Secretary of Defense under Contract SD-183

         → The  National Institutes of Mental Health under
           Grant PHS MH 066-45-08

         → <sponsor> and in part by <sponsor>.

DISTRIBUTION:   by the publisher.  In cases where the article has not
been published previously as an A.I. Memo, approximately 200 reprints
should   be  obtained  and  made  available  to  interested  persons,
including those on the A.I. Abstract list (see Section C3, below).

SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-2

    C2.  Film Reports.

PURPOSE:      communicate   to   the   scientific  and  technological
communities  or  the  general  public  research  results  that   lend
themselves to audio-visual presentation.

CONTROLS:   content of the film should be reviewed  by  the  research
supervisor.    The  budget  must  be  pre-arranged with the Executive

FORMAT:  unconstrained except that a sponsor acknowledgement must  be
included  (see  preceding  section).   16 mm Ektachrome with sound is
usually a good film choice.

DISTRIBUTION:   Several prints of each film  are  kept  by  the  A.I.
Project  Secretary for loan without charge to interested groups, with
the requirement that no admission fee  be  charged  for  viewing  the
film.  At least one print of each film is kept in the A.I. Conference
Room, for showings to visitors.

Anyone may purchase prints  at  cost  (typically  $30  to  $50)  from
Cine-Chrome   Laboratories,   4075   Transport   Street,  Palo  Alto,
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-3

    C3.  Artificial Intelligence Memos

PURPOSE:   communicate  research  results,  including  theses, to the
computer science community, especially those interested in Artificial

CONTROLS:   memo   contents   should  be  reviewed  by  the  research
supervisor.   Memo  numbers  are  assigned  by  the   A. I.   Project
Secretary.  Departures  from  the  standard  format  (below)  or  the
standard reproduction run are reviewed by the Executive Officer.

FORMAT:    printed on 8.5x11 inch paper, one or both sides.  For long
memos (say, greater  than  30  pages)  printing  is  on  both  sides.
Binding may be by a staple in the upper left corner, a plastic spiral
binder, or three staples on the left margin covered with  cloth  tape
on  the  outside.   For  the  latter two, covers of heavier stock are
used. Where covers are used, the front one has the  layout  shown  in
Figure C-1, where

<cover  acknowledgement>  →  ADVANCED  RESEARCH  PROJECTS AGENCY
                                     ARPA ORDER NO. 457

                          →  NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF MENTAL HEALTH

                          →  <cover acknowledgement>
                             <cover acknowledgement>

If the memo is published jointly with some other  organization,  this
should  be  shown  on  the  cover.   If it is also a Computer Science
Report, then a <report inscription>  should  appear  just  above  the
date, namely,

<report inscription> → TECHNICAL REPORT NO. CS<report number>

The  <report number> is controlled by the Computer Science Department
and is administered by the  reproduction  group  in  the  Computation

Whether  or  not there is a cover, the title page should appear as in
Figure C-2, where the <sponsor acknowledgement> is the same as  given
in  Section C1, above.  If the memo is published jointly with another
organization or is a Computer Science Report, that information should
appear  just below the top two lines of the title page.  For Computer
Science Reports, the form  is
	<report inscription>
where the <report inscription> is as  given  just  above.  Note  that
there  must  be  an  abstract,  which  may  run onto the next page if

SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-4

                    [Figure C-1  A.I. Memo Cover]

MEMO AIM-<memo number>




                            SPONSORED BY
                       <cover acknowledgement>

                           <month & year>

                  School of Humanities and Sciences
                         Stanford University

                           <Stanford Seal>
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-5

                 [Figure C-2  A.I. Memo Title Page]

MEMO AIM-<memo number>                                 <month & year>




ABSTRACT:  <abstract>

                      <sponsor acknowledgement>

Reproduced  in the USA.  Available from the Clearinghouse for Federal
Scientific and Technical Information,  Springfield,  Virginia  22151.
Price:  full size copy $3.00; microfiche copy $ .65.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-6

The format of the text is up to the author.  An  acknowledgement,  if
included,   may   follow  the  abstract.   A  table  of  contents  is
recommended.  References are usually placed at the end  of  the  memo
and  page  numbers  are  traditionally placed at the bottom center of
each page.

DISTRIBUTION:   Copies  of all A.I. Memos are sent to several groups,
including the sponsor organization, the Computer Science Library, and
indirectly  to the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical
Information, which will sell copies to nearly anyone for the  amounts
shown at the bottom of Figure C-2.

Abstracts  of  new  A.I.  Memos  are  distributed periodically to all
Computer  Science  Faculty  and  Research  Associates,  the  Computer
Science Advisory Committee, and leading computer science researchers,
especially those interested  in  artificial  intelligence.   Research
supervisors may place on this list anyone they wish, but are expected
to periodically review their list for currency.

Requests by anyone for one or a few memos are  generally  honored  as
long  as  the  supply lasts.  Requests for large numbers of memos are
reviewed by the Executive Officer.

SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-7

    C4.  Operating Notes (SAILONs)

PURPOSE:   describe the theory and operation of computer programs and
equipment in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.   These
notes  are  intended  for project use, but are distributed outside to
some extent, particularly for programs that are exported.

CONTROLS:     content of each note is reviewed by the Computer System
Supervisor   (current   surrogate:   Earnest).   SAILON  numbers  are
assigned by the A.I.   Project Secretary.       Revisions  are  given
successive  decimals  (e. g.    SAILON-50.1  is the first revision of
SAILON-50).     Corrections or supplements are labelled as such (e.g.
"SAILON-50.1 Correction 2").

FORMAT:     printed  on  8.5x11  inch  paper  punched  for three-ring
notebook.   For short notes (say, less than 30 pages), printing is on
one  side  of  each  page, while for longer ones both sides are used.
Moderate size notes are fastened with a  staple  in  the  upper  left
corner, while large ones are held together by a brass paper fastener.

The  first  page  of  each SAILON has the layout shown in Figure C-3,
where the <sponsor> is as defined in Section C1 above.   For  sizable
notes,  it  is  good practice to have an abstract, table of contents,
and subject index.

Successive pages  have  "SAILON-<note  number>"  in  the  upper  left
corner.  It is desirable to show also a short version of the title at
the top of the page. For notes longer than 10 pages, it is preferable
to  start  each  major  section on a new page and number the pages by
section (in the form <section number>-<page  number>)  to  facilitate
partial revision.

DISTRIBUTION:  New notes may be picked up in the lobby  of  the  A.I.
Project  for at least one week after publication.  There is currently
no other standard distribution of SAILONs.  Reasonable requests  from
anyone  are generally honored as long as the supply lasts.  Summaries
of current SAILONs are distributed occasionally  to  persons  on  the
A.I. Memo Abstract list.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-8

                   [Figure C-3  SAILON Title Page]

OPERATING NOTE  <note number>					<date>


<abstract and/or introduction>

The work reported here was supported in part by the
<cover acknowledgement>.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                    C-9

    C5.  Letters

PURPOSE:  communicate on any topic with one or a few persons outside

CONTROLS:   none.    Copies  of all outgoing correspondence should be
kept by the writer.

FORMAT:  typed on 8.5x11 inch paper as shown in Figure C-4, where

<subject heading, if any>→ <null>
			 → SUBJECT:  <subject>

<references, if any> → <null>
                     → REFERENCES:  <reference list>

<reference list>     → <reference>
		     → <reference list>

<reference>  →  <sequence integer>.  <author(s)>, "<article   title>",
             →  <sequence integer>.  <author(s)>, <BOOK TITLE>,
                <publisher>, <city>, <year of publication>.

<closing> → Very truly yours
          → Sincerely
          → <your own thing>

<enclosures, if any> → <null>
                     → Enclosures: <reference list>

<supplementary distribution, if any> → <null>
 				     → cc: <distribution list>
<distribution list> → <person>
		    → <distribution list>

<person> → <name of Computer Science person>
         → <name of other person>,<address>

<blind distribution, if any> → <null>
			     → bcc: <distribution list>

The blind distribution list appears only on the copies of persons  on
that  list  and  on the copy retained by the writer. If the letter is
more than one page long, the top line of succeeding pages should have
the following heading:

<addressee>                   -<page number>-                  <date>

DISTRIBUTION:  as specified by the writer.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                   C-10

                       [Figure C-4     Letter]

                         STANFORD UNIVERSITY

                    Stanford,  California  94306

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT      	<date>		Telephone:
							Ext. 4971

<addressee's full name>

<subject heading, if any>

<references, if any>

Dear <addressee's short name>:




<signer's name>
<signer's title>

<writer's initials>/<secretary's initials>

<enclosures, if any>

<supplementary distribution, if any>

<blind distribution, if any>
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                   C-11

    C6.  Memoranda

PURPOSE:  communicate on any topic to other persons at Stanford.

CONTROLS:  none.

FORMAT:  printed on 8.5x11 inch paper and stapled in the  upper  left
corner.  The first page has the heading shown in Figure C-5.

It is good practice to outline the intent of the  memorandum  in  the
first sentence or two.   Successive pages usually carry the same page
heading as  letters.   Enclosures,  supplementary  distribution,  and
blind  distribution  may be specified at the end, as for letters (see
preceding section).

Optionally, the author may place his signature or  initials  next  to
his name on the first page.

DISTRIBUTION:  as specified by the writer.

                 [Figure C-5 Memorandum, first page]



TO:      <addressee(s)>

FROM:    <writer(s)>

SUBJECT: <subject>

SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                   C-12

    C7.  Program Notes

PURPOSE:  informal description of a small program or one that has not
yet been released for general use.

CONTROLS:    none.   If the note is in the form of a text file it may
be stored in [S,DOC] if it describes a SYS program, or in [UP,DOC] if
the  program  is kept in the author's file area.  Users are on notice
that the latter programs may be changed at any time without warning.

In  general,  the  name of the file in which a program note is stored
takes the form <program name>.<programmer's initials> .

FORMAT:    when  printed,  it  should fit on no more than 15 pages of
8.5x11 inches.  (If larger, it should be published as a SAILON.)  The
first line of text should contain
If the document is embedded in the source  program,  then  the  first
line  may  also  contain other information on the left.  Thus, a FAIL
program might take the form
                TITLE   <title>:<date>
while a SAIL program might begin
                BEGIN  "<title>:<date>

It  is  good  form  to  include  a  section  labelled  OPERATION that
describes how to run the program,  one  labelled  PROCESS  that  says
something  about  how  the  process is carried out and perhaps one on
FEATURES.  It is a  good  idea  to  include  examples  of  acceptable

DISTRIBUTION:  primarily  through the computer, by the recipient.  An
up-to-date copy of each note should be kept in the rolling  reference
catalog in the computer room.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                   C-13

    C8.  Notices

PURPOSE:  announce to project  members  such  things  as  forthcoming
events, new services, problems to be faced, or provocative ideas.

CONTROLS:  none, except that notices are purged after awhile.

FORMAT:   text file, typed or printed page, or a scribbled note.  For
things that should be of interest to most computer users, the  notice
may  be  put  in  the  "message  of  the day", which is automatically
printed at login time at least once for  each  user.   See  a  system
programmer if you want this done.

Announcements of events should clearly specify:
	1)  what is to happen,
	2)  who is invited,
	3)  the date, time, and place.
For seminars and such, don't forget to identify the speaker  and  his

DISTRIBUTION:  a given "message of the day" should not be left in the
system longer than a week.  Printed notices may be either distributed
(to mailboxes or desks), posted, or stacked on the table in the lobby
for people to take as they wish.

There are three main locations for posting notices:
	1)  the  bulletin  board  next to the mailboxes is mainly for
	    official and semiofficial notices,
	2) the board near the Prancing Pony is mainly for provocation
	    and amusement,
	3)  the  board  next  to  the  computer room entrance carries
	    notices of interest to computer users.

In  all  cases, notices should be removed after about a week or after
the event described.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               Media                   C-14

    C9.  Messages

PURPOSE:   brief  communication  on  any topic from one individual to

CONTROLS:  none.

FORMAT:   may  be  transmitted through the computer or as a scribbled

To  prepare  a computer message, log in under [2,2] and create a text
file named "<addressee's initials>.MSG".

Two kinds of small preprinted pads are available in the supply room:
	1) a MEMO designed to record  incoming  telephone  calls  and
	    visitors, and
	2) a Stanford University Interdepartmental Memo designed  for
	    short messages of any sort.
Whatever medium is used, the message should clearly identify  who  it
is from, who it is to, and the date.

DISTRIBUTION: a computer  message  is  automatically  called  to  the
attention   of   the  addressee  the  next  time  he  logs  in.   The
distribution of scribbled messages is left to the imagination of  the
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-1

                         APPENDIX D.   COSTS

This appendix lists the data and assumptions used to develop the cost
estimates in Section 2 of the text.

    D1.  Text Preparation Equipment

The  equipment  cost estimates of Figure 2-2 in the text are based on
the following data.
             				      Purchase       Maintenance
                                           (installation)      (rental)
                                                cost             cost
	IBM Model D typewriter(purchased)	$450.		$3.17/mo
	Copy holder, typits, etc.		 329.	         0

PDP-10 terminals
	Model 33 Teletype (ave. purchase)	 883.		 3.75
	Model 37 Teletype (ave. purchase)      1,943. 		 3.75
	ARDS terminal			      14,685.		10.00
	III display ($126,555 for 6)          21,093.		10.00
        DD display ($102,000 for 30)           3,400.            4.00
	Teletype port on computer	       1,110.		  .25
	Business phone and data set		  75.		43.25
	Business phone				  10.		 5.15
        Acoustic coupler (ave. purchase)         267.             .10

360/67 terminals	
	IBM 2741 (leased)			 135.	       148.25

If we write off the purchase or installation charges over appropriate
periods, an effective fixed monthly cost is obtained.

					Write-off period    Fixed cost
	IBM Model D, purchased			5 years		$10.67/mo
	Copy holder, typits, etc.		5      		  5.48

Model 33 TTY at A.I.Lab
	TTY, purchased				5      		$18.46
	computer port				5      		 18.75

Model 33 TTY at remote phone (assuming that there must be one Dataphone
	input to the computer for every two remote TTYs)
	TTY, purchased				5      		$18.46
	business phone				2      		  5.57
        acoustic coupler                        5                 4.54
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-2

	1/2 computer port			5      		  9.38
	1/2 business line and data set		5      		 22.25

Model 37 TTY at A.I. Lab
	TTY, purchased				5      		$36.14
	computer port				5      		 18.75

ARDS terminal
	ARDS, purchased				5      	       $254.75
	computer port				5      		 18.75

III display terminal (each)			5      	       $361.55

DD display terminal                             5               $60.60

IBM 2741 terminal				5      	       $153.87

The operating cost of the typewriter is mainly paper and ribbon:
	bond paper		$.0032 per page
	typewriter ribbon        .024  per page
Assuming 6 pages per hour, the operating cost is  $.16 per hour.

The  operating costs for the two sets of computer terminals are based
on the following schedules.

		Connection	CPU charge	CPU time/   Operating
		charge			     hr. of editing  cost
PDP-10 Teletypes  $0 /hr.	$3.00/min.      1/3 min.    $1.00/hr.
PDP-10 displays    0     	 3.00		1/2          1.50
360/67 terminals   3.50          9.00           1/6          5.00

Note that the connection costs for the PDP-10 have all been allocated
to the fixed monthly charge.  The larger CPU time  estimate  for  the
displays is based on the fact that people generally work faster with
displays than with teletypes.
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-3

    D2.  Page Reproduction

The  costs  of  copying  a single page, as shown in Figure 2-4 of the
text, are developed here for several copying and printing devices and
services. Both average and marginal costs are given, where different.

The line printer in the A.I. Laboratory was purchased.  When using it
as a copying device, there are startup costs, involving the necessity
of  logging in and out, running a print program, and ejecting 5 extra
pages from the line printer at the end.  The time required to print N
pages  is  approximately  (30  +  10  N)   seconds.   The   following
calculations  assume  an  average  volume of 35,000 printed pages per
month, which is about what we do.
     					      Startup cost  Page cost
line printer($47,500 purchase over 5 years
	plus $15/month maintenance)		   $0.  	$.023
operator time ($6.00/hour)			     .05	 .017
CPU time ($3.00 min. x 0.5 sec/page)		     .01	 .025
paper ($.0032/page)				     .016	 .0032
printer ribbon ($.0032/page)			    0.  	 .0032
                                                   -----        -----
average cost (all elements)			   $ .08   +	$.071/page
marginal cost (paper and ribbon)		   $ .016  +    $.0064

The cost of printing upper-lower case text on the SCC line printer is
$5.00 for the print train change plus (at lowest priority)
	$1.50 first 1K lines
      + $ 1.00/1K lines up to 40K
      + $ .45/1K lines after that.
Assuming an average of 50 lines per page, this works out as follows:
	Pages		Charge
	1-20		$6.50
	  50		 8.50
	 100		10.50
	 200		15.50
	 500		30.50
	1000		50.00
	2000		72.50

A Model 37 teletype prints a full page of single-spaced text in about
4  minutes.  Assuming 120 hours/month operation, it could print about
1800 pages per month, with the following costs.
					Startup cost	Page cost
Teletype ($54.89/month, per
	last section, or $.46/hour	$.004		$0.029
operator time($6.00/hour)		 .05		  .40
CPU time($3.00/min x 0.5sec/page	 .01		  .025
paper(380 pages/roll @$.71/roll)	 .0019		  .0019

ribbon ($.0011/page)			 .0011		  .0011
                                        ------          -------
Average cost (all elements)		$.07	   +	$ .46/page
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-4

Marginal cost (paper and ribbon)	$.003      +	$ .003

The  cost  of  printing  on  the  IBM  2741 terminal connected to the
Computation Center 360/67, with the same assumptions as for the Model
37 teletype, is as follows.  Printing time is essentially the same as
for the Model 37.
					Startup cost	Page cost
IBM 2741 terminal ($143.36/month,
	or $1.19/hour)			$0.01		$.08
operator time ($6.00/hour)		  .05		 .40
terminal connection ($3.50/hour)	  .03		 .23
CPU time ($9.00/min x .15sec/page)	  .01		 .023
paper ($.003/page)			  .003		 .003
ribbon ($.002/page)			  .002		 .002
                                        ------          -----
Average cost (all elements)		$ .11      +	$.74/page
Marginal cost (last four)		$ .05      +    $.26/page

The  Xerox  720  copier  at  the A.I. Laboratory is leased.  Assuming
4,000 pages/month are copied, and  the  installation  life  is  three
years,  the  following  costs  apply.   The  startup time is about 30
seconds and the copy rate is 12 copies per minute.

					Startup cost	Page cost
Xerox 720 ($80 install. + $25/mo.)  	$0.00		$.0068
operator time ($6.00/hour)		  .05		 .008
Xerox page charges		
	copies 1-3			 		 .045
	copies 4-10		 			 .030
	copies 11 and up				 .020
paper							 .0032
toner							 .0008
                                        -----           -----
Average cost (all elements)	
	copies 1-3		         $.05     +     $.064/copy
	copies 4-10		                  +      .049
	copies 11 and up                          +      .039
Marginal cost (last three)	
	copies 1-3		        $0        +    	 .049/copy
	copies 4-10                               +      .034
	copies 11 and up                          +      .024

Page charges for Xeroxing at the Computation Center are $.10/page for
the first 15 copies and $.05 for each additional.

Offset printing at the Computation Center is costed as follows.
	master:  $.40
	paper ($1.60/ream quantized to 1/4 ream):  $.40/125 pages
	printing  (3  min.  setup,  9000  copies/hour  @  $13.50/hour
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-5

		quantized to 5 minutes):  $1.125/first 300 pages,
		successive 750 pages.

Offset printing at SEL is costed as follows.
master:  $.50
paper ($1.50/ream quantized to 1/4 ream):  $.375/125 pages
printing  (5  min.  setup,  6000 copies/hour @$11.50 quantized to 1/4
hour):  $2.875/first 1000 pages, successive 1500 pages.

The Stanford Photo Reproduction prices given in Figure 2-4 are  taken
directly from published schedules.

    D3.  Report Reproduction

The costs of making 200 copies of several report sizes, as  shown  in
Figure 2-5 of the text, are developed here.

The A.I. line printer costs analyzed in  the  preceding  section  are
used.    Since  the person operating the printer can burst, trim, and
staple while printing proceeds, there is no additional cost for these

Report pages  		  10	 50	100	200

line printing(ave.)	$142.	$710.	$1420.  $1840.
       "    (marg.)	  13.	  74.	  148.    286.

The costs of using the A.I. Xerox, based on  the  preceding  section,
are as follows.

Report pages		  10	 50	100	200

Xerox copying
($8.00/report page, ave) $80   $400    $800   $1600

collate and staple     1.5hr  8hr     16hr    32hr
($6.00/hour)	       	   9     48      96     192
                         ----  ----    ----    ----
Average cost		 $89    $448   $896   $1792
Marginal (copying) cost
($4.95/report page)      $50    $248   $495   $ 990

The cost of using the Computation Center's Xerox is as follows.

Report pages		  10     50     100	200

Xerox copying
($10.75/report page)	$108   $538   $1075   $2150
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-6

Collate and bind       1.5hr  4.5hr   7.5hr   15hr
($13.50/hour)	      	  20     58     101     203
                        ----    ----   ----    ----
Total cost		$128   $596   $1176   $2353

The cost of  Computation  Center  offset  printing  is  estimated  as
follows. It is assumed that the 10 page report is printed on one side
and not bound, while the others are printed on both sides and bound.

Report pages		  10     50     100     200

masters ($.40)		 $ 4    $20     $40     $80
paper ($1.60/ream)         6     16      32      64
covers & bindings
     ($.10/set)		         20      20      20
printing ($13.50/hour) 1hr    4hr     8hr     16hr
                          14     54     108     216
collating and binding  1.5hr  4.3hr   8hr     16hr
($13.50/hour)	          20     58     101     203
                        ----   ----    ----    ----
Total cost		 $44   $168    $301    $583

SEL  offset  printing is costed as follows, with the same assumptions
as for the Computation Center.

Report pages		  10     50     100     200

masters ($.50)		 $ 5    $25     $50    $100
paper ($1.50/ream)         6     15      30      60
covers & bindings
    ($.05/set)			 10 	 10 	 10
printing ($11.50/hour) 1hr   2.5hr    5hr     10hr
                          12     29      58     115
collating & binding    1.2hr    3hr     6hr    12hr
                          10     24      48      96
                        ----   ----    ----    ----
Total cost		 $33   $103    $196    $381

GL  printing  charges  are  based  on  the following schedule, with a
minimum charge of $100.

One-sided printing:  $1.25/report page + .005/sheet printed.
Two-sided printing:  $2.48/2 report pages + .008/sheet printed.
Collating:  $3.00/1000 sheets.
Stapling:  $.01/staple.

Report pages		  10     50     100     200
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;               COSTS                    D-7

printing                 $23   $102    $204    $408
collating                  6     30      60     120
binding                    2      5       5       5
                        ----   ----    ----    ----
	Total cost      $100   $137    $267    $533

    D4.  Document Storage

The  document  storage  costs presented in Figure 2-6 of the text are
developed here.  We assume  that  pages  hold  an  average  of  3,600
characters each.

The cost of storing paper in a filing cabinet is estimated first.
storage cabinet ($80. over 5 years): $1.33/month.
space charge (10 square feet @$2./sq.ft./year):  $1.67/month.
capacity (4 drawers of 6000 pages, 50% full):  12,000 pages
		Average cost:   $.00025/page/month

A.I. Magnetic tape ($20 over 3 years):  $.56/month
capacity (2400ft. @556 bpi; 50% full):  1853 pages
		Average cost:  $.00030/page/month

SCC magnetic tape:  $2.00/month
capacity (2400 ft. @ 800 bpi, 50% full):  3200 pages
		Average cost:  $.00063/month

Dectape ($15 over 3 years):  $.42/month
capacity (590K words, 50% full):  410 pages
		Average cost:  $.0010/page/month

A.I. disk pack: $16/month
capacity (1024 words/track, 4000 tracks/disk, 75% full):  4267 pages
		Cost:  $.0037/page/month

S.C.C. disk pack:  $40/month
capacity (7,188 bytes/track,4000 tracks/disk, 75% full):  5990 pages
		Cost:  $.0067/page/month

A.I. disk file(IBM 2314 Model A2, $3,100/month
  + 5 Memorex packs@ $16/month):  $3,180/month
capacity (5 packs, 75% full):  21,333 pages
		Cost:  $.15/page/month

S.C.C. disk file {IBM 2314, $.015/track/day): $.45/track/month
capacity (7188 bytes/track, 80% full):  1.59 pages
		Cost: $.28/page/month
SAILON-60:  DOCUMENTATION;            References                  E-1

                             Appendix E

1. S. Savitzky, "Son of Stopgap", SAILON 50.1, September 1969.

2. D. Swinehart, "TJ--A  Text  Justifier",  Program  Note,  September

3. L. Earnest, "Freeforol", Program Note, 15 Oct. 1969.

4. "Campus Facility User's Manual", Stanford Computation Center.

5. K. Pingle, "MANLST--THE MANUAL LISTER", Program  Note,  January 1970

6. L. Earnest, "Display Plans", memorandum, January 1970.

7. R. Neeley. "PIX", Program Note, September 1969.

8. A. Moorer, "Stanford A.I. Project Monitor Manual, Chapter I--Console
     Commands", SAILON-54.1, October 1969.

9. T. Panofsky, "Facility Manual", SAILON-56, to be published.

10. L. Earnest, "XEROX", program note, February 1970.