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Manipulator History

	N.C. Machine
	Master- Slaves
	Versatran with 3,4,5, dof.
	Unimate - 5 dof
	Trallfa- 5 and 6 dof -continuous path
	Unimate- and Kawasaki Unimate 6 dof.

	Rancho- 6 dof- solution problem
	Master-Slaves- Modified for computer control
	Stanford Orm
	STanford Hydraulic Arm
	Stanford Electric Arm
	M.I.T. Pyramid Arm - ? DOF
	M.I.T. Overhead Crane
	M.I.T. Mini-Arm
	ETL arm- 7 or 8 dof

Piepers thesis
	Classification of manipulators
	Solvability rules
	General case- degree of 524,288 for 6 dof.
	Solvable if 8th deg. or less.
	3 intersecting axes-reduction to 4th order.
	Two problems- position and orientation rather than one of both.
	Furthur simplification by right angles, no offsets, etc.
	Approximate Solutions 
	Multiple Solutions
	Pieper's list of computer controlled manipulator requirements.
	A.I.'s specific requirements.
The Stanford Arm Design.

	Stanford Arm
	Simple solution
	Compliant joints
	Position, Velocity and Torque control
	Localized drive system
	All electric
	Provision for force balance, touch sensors, etc.
	Computer interfacing.
	Pulse width vs. linear amps.
	Resolution of sensors and dimensional constraints
	Gravity and changing inertia components
M.I.T. manipulator

	Compact, small size
	Spur gear systems
	Torque motor drive
	Torque to inertia considerations, 
	Power to weight ratios.
	Load handling capability
	Speed vs. load capacity

Manipulator Systems

	Arm, hand, sensors, control, interface, computer, software, terminal.
	Multiple fingers- control problems.
	Hardware or software servo, open or closed loop.
	Sensors- analog or digital or combination. 
	Compute requirements- speed, memory size, smarts tradeoffs.
	Software- WAVE, AL, or simpler language.
	Human interface- manual control, teach mode, ease of interaction.