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                                                                  NIC 50001

                            DDN NEW USER GUIDE

                               OCTOBER 1986

                            DDN NEW USER GUIDE

                               OCTOBER 1986

                            Stephen C. Dennett
                           Elizabeth J. Feinler
                             Francine Perillo
                               Mary K. Stahl
                               Carol A. Ward

Additional copies of this document may be obtained from the DDN Network
Information Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Room EJ291,
Menlo Park, CA 94025.  Price is $10.00 domestic, $13.00 overseas.  Copies
may also be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC),
Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314.


It is the intent of the DDN Network Information Center (NIC) to make the
New User Guide widely available to DDN users at minimal cost.  It may be
obtained in hardcopy or machine-readable form from several sources.
Military users may obtain hardcopy as a DCA Circular from the Defense
Technical Information Center (DTIC).  (Either the NIC or DTIC can provide
the ordering number.)  Non-military users such as contractors, systems
personnel, and researchers, may obtain hardcopy from the NIC by sending
$10.00 ($13.00 overseas) to the DDN Network Information Center, SRI
International, Room EJ291, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025.
Copies are available online to DDN users who have access to File Transfer
Protocol (FTP).  The file NETINFO:NUG.DOC contains an ASCII sequential text
version.  In addition, the NIC will make every effort to assist key
military DDN POCs in providing copies of this Guide to their user

UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.  TOPS 20 is a
registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.  InfoMail is a
trademark of BBN Communications Corporation.

DDN New User Guide.  Printed and bound in the United States of America.
Published by the DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo
Park, CA 94025.

                           Date:  December 1985

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   III

SECTION 1.  INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
          1.1.  Welcome  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1
          1.2.  Using This Guide  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
          1.3.  Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3

SECTION 2.  THE DEFENSE DATA NETWORK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
          2.1.  Network Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
          2.2.  The DDN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      5
          2.3.  The MILNET and ARPANET  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
          2.4.  The DDN Program Management Office  . . . . . . . . .      6
          2.5.  The Role of DARPA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      6
          2.6.  Requirements for Legitimate DDN Access  . . . . . . .     6

SECTION 3.  NETWORK CONNECTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.1.  Host Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7
          3.2.  TAC Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.3.  Gateway Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
          3.4.  Network Naming and Addressing  . . . . . . . . . . .      7
          3.5.  TAC Connection to the Network  . . . . . . . . . . .      8
          3.5.1.  Dial-up TACs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     8
  Locating the Closest TAC  . . . . . . . . . . . .     8
  Using a Terminal With An Acoustic Coupler  . . .      8
  Using a Dial-up Modem  . . . . . . . . . . . . .      8
          3.5.2.  Hardwired TACs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     8
          3.6.  TAC Login  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      8
          3.6.1.  TAC Login Hints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      8
          3.6.2.  Common TAC Login Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . .      8
          3.7.  A Word About Personal Computers  . . . . . . . . . .      8

SECTION 4.  NETWORK REGISTRATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    11
          4.1.  Network User Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . .     11
          4.1.1.  The Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . . .     11
          4.2.  TAC User Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     11

SECTION 5.  NETWORK USE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
          5.1.  Network Tools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
          5.1.1.  Electronic Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
  UNIX MAIL - Sending mail  . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
  UNIX MAIL - Reading mail  . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
  UNIX MAIL - Getting Help  . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
  INFOMAIL - Sending Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
  INFOMAIL - Reading Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  INFOMAIL - Getting Help  . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  MM - Sending Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  MM - Reading Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  MM - Getting Help  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
          5.1.2.  FTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
  How to FTP a File (TOPS 20)  . . . . . . . . . .     15
  How to FTP a File (UNIX)  . . . . . . . . . . . .    16
  How to FTP a Directory Listing  . . . . . . . . .    17
          5.1.3.  TELNET  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
  TELNET Using Hostname  . . . . . . . . . . . . .     17
  TELNET Using the Host Address  . . . . . . . . .     17
  TELNET to a Socket Using the Host Address  . . .     17
  TELNET to a Socket Using the Hostname  . . . . .     17
          5.2.  NIC Network Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
          5.2.1.  WHOIS/NICNAME  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     18
  WHOIS Search by Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    18
  WHOIS Search by Partial Name  . . . . . . . . . .    18
  WHOIS Search by Handle  . . . . . . . . . . . . .    18
  WHOIS Search by Hostname  . . . . . . . . . . . .    18
  WHOIS Search by TAC Name  . . . . . . . . . . . .    18
  WHOIS Search by Node Name  . . . . . . . . . . .     19
          5.2.2.  NIC/QUERY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     19
          5.2.3.  TACNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     19
          5.2.4.  Useful Online Reference Files at the NIC  . . . . .    19
          5.3.  Guidelines for Network Conduct  . . . . . . . . . . .    20
          5.3.1.  Passwords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     20
          5.3.2.  File Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     20
          5.3.3.  Plagiarism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    20
          5.3.4.  Mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    20
          5.4.  If You Have a Network Use Problem  . . . . . . . . .     21

          6.1.  The DDN Network Information Center (NIC)  . . . . . .    23
          6.1.1.  General Reference Service Provided by the NIC  . .     24
          6.1.2.  NIC Online Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     24
          6.1.3.  NIC U.S. Mail Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     24
          6.1.4.  Documents Published by the NIC  . . . . . . . . . .    25
          6.2.  Network Monitoring Centers (NMCs)  . . . . . . . . .     25
          6.2.1.  NMC Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    25
          6.2.2.  NMC Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    25
          6.2.3.  NMC U.S. Mail Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . .     26
          6.3.  Host Administrators, Node Site Coordinators, and
              Responsible Persons  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     26
          6.4.  Military Communications and Operations Command
              Contacts                                                   26
          6.5.  Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN
              PMO)                                                       27
          6.5.1.  DDN PMO Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    27
          6.6.  Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)  .     27
          6.6.1.  DARPA Contacts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    27

SECTION 7.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    29

SECTION 8.  GLOSSARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    31

APPENDIX A. SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS (SIGs)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .    33

    BY NETWORK USERS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    35

APPENDIX C. USEFUL NETWORK CONTACTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     37


The DDN New User Guide was prepared by the DDN Network Information Center
for the Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO) of the
Defense Communications Agency under contract number DCA-200-83-C-0025.

The NIC wishes to acknowledge the valuable services provided to the network
community by the Host Administrators and Node Site Coodinators.  In
addition we wish to thank BBN Computer Corporation, the DDN PMO, and the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency for their assistance.  Special
thanks to Rich Zellich at the Army Automated Logistics Management Systems
Activity for his assistance with the list of network special interest


1.1  Welcome

Welcome to the Defense Data Network, or the DDN as it is more commonly
called.  The DDN is a powerful operational military network.  It might be
thought of as an "umbrella" network composed of several large segments or
subnetworks.  The unclassified portion of the DDN is a subnetwork known as
the MILNET.  It is the MILNET on which this document will focus, and on
which you are invited to try your hand.

The DDN New User Guide describes the policies, concepts, and conventions of
the DDN, with major emphasis on the MILNET.  The guide contains an overview
and a tutorial introduction to the DDN, along with a description of some of
its interesting network programs and services.  It is not intended to be a
highly technical document, and does not cover the process of attaching
hardware, terminals, or other equipment to the network.  This information
is provided in other documents [1,2].

As you will subsequently learn, the MILNET recently split off from the
unclassified DoD experimental research and development network known as the
ARPANET; therefore, most of what is described in this document applies to
the ARPANET as well as to the MILNET, although, as stated above, the
emphasis of this guide is on MILNET.

A wealth of services and resources is available on the DDN.  Many of your
colleagues already work on the network, and you will be able to communicate
easily and quickly with them, even though they may be hundreds of miles
away.  It is also easy to participate in discussions about topics of
interest and to use network programs and tools to enhance your own

Using a computer network is not difficult.  However, as with any new tool,
proficiency requires learning some procedures and guidelines, and
practicing your new skills.  The DDN New User Guide will provide the
background information necessary to get you started.  We hope you find it a
useful orientation aid to the network.

1.2  Using This Guide

This Guide is written for the new user and should be supplemented with
additional reading from other sources.  Network-specific terms are defined
both in context and in the Glossary (Section 8).  Throughout the text,
references appear in the form "[12]".  These refer to citations listed in
the Bibliography (Section 7) which describe documents containing additional
explanatory or background information.  Also check online HELP systems and
the documentation that often accompanies network programs.  (Watch for
pointers to online HELP files when you first access a given program or
service.)  We encourage you to expand your knowledge of the network by
consulting these and other additional information sources whenever you can.

The Guide is divided into sections and subsections, each covering topics of
interest to a new user.  The following is a summary of what is contained in
each section.

Section 1 is a brief introduction to the GUIDE.

Section 2 describes the structure of the DDN and how it is administered.
The MILNET and the ARPANET are introduced.  This section discusses the role
of the Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO) in managing
the DDN.  It also outlines the role of the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) in the development of the ARPANET and explains the
current relationship between the two agencies with respect to the ARPANET
and the MILNET.

Section 3, Network Connection, gives step-by-step procedures for connecting
to the network.  Procedures for accessing the network through a Terminal
Access Controller (TAC) are described in detail.

Section 4, Network Registration, discusses the steps required to register
as a new user and to obtain authorization to use a TAC.

Section 5, Network Use, provides "how-to" instructions for some of the most
useful services available on the DDN.  It also describes the legal and
courtesy standards of the network.  Be sure to read the etiquette section
(Section 5.3).  The guidelines outlined there will decrease your chances of
unwittingly offending other users during your first days on the net.

Section 6 describes network services and the key people who manage them.
The DDN Network Information Center (NIC) is the logical first place to ask
for information unavailable at the local level.  The NIC can help users
solve network use problems, locate documents and resources, or identify
appropriate points of contact (POCs) for further assistance.

Sections 7 and 8 contain a Bibliography and a Glossary of terms used in
this GUIDE.

The appendices contain information about network Special Interest Groups
(SIGs), a sample set of representative questions asked by new users, and a
one-page list of useful contacts.

Located at the back of the GUIDE is a feedback form.  Readers are
encouraged to use the feedback form to make suggestions or point out
errors.  We value your comments and suggestions, and will consider them for
future versions of the New User Guide.  Suggestions may also be sent online

1.3  Syntax

The following syntax conventions are used to describe user/machine
interactions in the DDN New User Guide.


[Text in brackets]
                 Machine response.

underlined lower-case
                 Literal user typein.

UPPER CASE       A variable to be typed by the user, such as a password.
                 When the word "PASSWORD" appears, the user is expected to
                 enter his actual password, rather than type the word

PASSWORD         A usually non-echoing string of characters, chosen by the
                 user or by the system on behalf of the user, and required
                 for authentication when logging into a computer.

...TEXT...       Text other than a command, variable, or a control
                 character, to be supplied by the user, e.g., the actual
                 contents of a message.

<Return>         A carriage return typed by the user.

<Control>X       A control character typed by the user, where "X" may be
                 any character.  To execute, the user must press two keys
                 at once, the CONTROL key and the letter or symbol key
                 indicated.  NOTE: The CONTROL key is labeled "CTRL" on
                 some keyboards.

; ...TEXT...     A comment added for clarification or explanation.
                 Comments will be off to the right and preceded by a
                 semi-colon.  They are included for informational purposes
                 only, and should not be typed.



2.1  Network Overview

A person accessing a local computer is largely unaware of what kind of link
connects his terminal to the computer he wishes to use.  The terminal seems
to be "the computer", since it prints or displays what is happening.  As
the user progresses in his work, he may need to move data from his local
computer onto another computer, or he may wish to send a message to a
colleague working on a computer at a distant location.  At this point the
usefulness of a communication network becomes apparent.

A communication network is a group of computers joined together by
data-carrying links.  A network may be as small as two or three personal
computers in a building, tied together by local telephone lines, or it may
be a vast complex of computers spread over the world, whose data links
include long-haul telephone lines, satellite relays, fiber optic cables, or
radio links.  It is also possible for several different networks to be
interconnected to each other to form an "internetwork".

Everyone is familiar with telephones.  Phonesets inside the house connect
to outside lines which lead into nearby local or regional telephone
exchanges.  The exchanges are connected together to make up one or more
national telephone systems.  The national telephone systems communicate
with each other to make up an international telephone network.  There are
also private telephone systems, which are totally separate from the public
telephone systems, and which own their own equipment.

Computer networks follow a similar pattern.  Local area networks  (called
LANs) may connect computers within a building or in different buildings.  A
LAN may stay separate, or it may interconnect to regional, national or
worldwide commercial or government networks.  Many of these large and small
networks are gradually interconnecting through "gateways" to form a
worldwide system of data networks similar to the telephone system.  Indeed,
since many computer networks use telephone communication lines to carry
data from one computer to the next, the two systems are closely interwoven.

Detailed knowledge of this technology is not needed to use a network, but
it is necessary to understand the concept of going through layers of
equipment and interconnections.  Effective network use also requires
knowing the online "addresses" of people or machines with which you wish to
communicate, and knowing your own network address as well.

The DDN is a special kind of data network known as a packet-switched
network. On this network a terminal or a source host computer (generally
just called a "host") passes a "message" along with its destination address
to the local Packet Switch Node (PSN) computer.  The PSN breaks the message
into "packets" or smaller chunks of data.  Each of these packets has the
same destination address as the original message, plus a sequence number
indicating which piece of the whole message it originally represented.  The
packets are passed from PSN to PSN until they reach the destination PSN.

A packet-switched network differs from a circuit-switched network  in that
no predetermined, dedicated path exists for delivery of the data.  Each
packet takes the best route that it can find at the time, and all the
packets in a given message do not necessarily take the same route.  Once
the packets arrive at the destination PSN, they are reassembled into the
right sequence and are then delivered as a complete message to the
destination host.

     NOTE:  PSNs were originally known as Interface Message Processors, or

The DDN is comprised of a variety of equipment.  Terminals, modems and host
computers are provided by users.  Node computers and leased telephone lines
are supplied by the DDN.  There are several ways a user can reach the
network from his terminal using different combinations of hardware in
conjunction with the network programs.  These are shown in Figure 2-1.

              Figure 2-1:   Methods of Accessing the Network

A terminal may reach a host in several ways.  A wire or cable may run
directly from the terminal to the computer; this is called a "hard-wired
terminal".  A terminal may also communicate with a computer via a telephone
connected to the terminal through a modem or acoustic coupler.  This
arrangement uses ordinary telephone lines to reach the computer and is
called a "dial-up terminal".  Dial-up terminals  generally connect to the
network at 1200 bits per second (bps), although other speeds are possible.

     NOTE: The speed settings of your terminal and modem must be the same
     for the two devices to properly communicate with each other.

             Figure 2-2:   Direct Connection to a Remote Host

Personal computers with the appropriate equipment may also be used as
terminals.  In this case, the personal computer "emulates" or acts like a
terminal when it is being used in terminal mode.

A terminal may be directly attached to a local area network (LAN), or to a
local switch (similar to a telephone switch).  The user can then
potentially reach any computer on the LAN or any computer connected to the
switch.  The LAN may also be internetted to the DDN through a "gateway",
which is a computer whose software determines whether the traffic from the
LAN is suitable to pass out onto the larger, long-haul network and vice

2.2  The DDN

The Defense Data Network (DDN) is a large military common-user data
communications internetwork operated for the Department of Defense (DoD) by
the Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO) of the Defense
Communications Agency (DCA).  The DDN is made up of several networks.
These networks have compatible hardware and software which lets them
communicate with each other.


The MILNET and the ARPANET are two of the networks that make up the DDN.
Both are unclassified military networks, but as we shall see, they have
different uses.

The ARPANET was built in 1969 as an experiment by the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to determine the viability of a
store-and-forward, host-to-host, packet-switched network.  The designers of
the network wanted to demonstrate that computers, made by different
manufacturers, of different sizes, and with different operating systems,
could communicate with each other across a network.  It was envisioned that
users of such a network could share programs and communicate via the
network with other users at distant locations.  The experiment was
successful, and today many data networks are modeled after the ARPANET.

In 1979 the Department of Defense decided to interconnect several DoD
long-haul, computer networks through a set of internet protocols  so that
they could share the same "backbone" of node computers linked by high-speed
telephone lines.  These protocols, which are rules or standards by which
networks communicate, were developed by researchers known as the Internet
Working Group (IWG), under the sponsorship of the DARPA Information
Processing Techniques Office (IPTO).  The protocols were tested
experimentally for several years on the ARPANET, and proved useful for
creating the networking environment that DoD wanted.

In 1982 a directive was issued that adopted a single set of communication
protocols [3] for the DoD based on the ARPANET protocols.  This was
followed in 1982 by a directive [4] to create the DDN as a parent or
"umbrella" operational military network made up of several existing or
planned DoD computer networks.  (See Fig. 2-3.)

               Figure 2-3:   Projected Expansion of the DDN

By 1983 the ARPANET, which was still considered an experimental network,
had grown to over 300 computers, many used for day-to-day operational
military purposes as well as research.  Other military users were seeking
networking services.  The DoD evaluated several network architectures to
meet the growing need for an operational military network and finally chose
the DARPA Internet architecture as the model for its common-user
communications network, the DDN.

In September 1984 the original ARPANET was split into two separate
unclassified networks, a military research and development network
(ARPANET) and a military operational communications network  (MILNET) .
The split returned to DARPA a network for experimentation and established
an unclassified military network able to accommodate the DoD's growing
operational needs.  Traffic, primarily electronic mail, still flows between
the two networks, but will be increasingly controlled by gateways as the
two networks evolve.

2.4  The DDN Program Management Office

The DDN Program Management Office (DDN PMO)  handles overall management,
operations, and policy guidelines for the DDN.  It assists new military
subscribers in bringing their computers and related equipment onto the DDN.
It also manages the ARPANET research and development network on behalf of

The DDN PMO provides many services to network users and potential network
subscribers.  It is responsible for keeping the network up and running,
providing user assistance, setting policies, anticipating growth and
expansion, and assisting new subscribers.  The DDN PMO also manages the
access control and security of the network backbone, designates host and
node contacts, and coordinates the military sponsors.  In addition, it
provides technical management of contracts for services, equipment, and
software obtained from outside vendors.

To provide operational management support for DDN, the PMO has designated a
person to act as the primary point of contact (POC) for operations for each
of the DDN networks.

Fig. 2-4 shows the overall organization of the various divisions, branches,
and codes within the DDN PMO.  Specific PMO contacts are listed in Section

                 Figure 2-4:   DDN PMO Organization Chart

2.5  The Role of DARPA

The primary role of DARPA in the government is to provide basic research,
development and technology transfer for the DoD.  From 1969 until 1973,
while the ARPANET was developing, DARPA managed and operated the ARPANET.
After 1973 the management and operation of the ARPANET was turned over to
DCA, and today it is managed by the DCA on behalf of DARPA.

The long association of DARPA with the ARPANET, together with the network's
name, have caused much confusion as to who manages the ARPANET now.
Therefore, it is important to reiterate that the DDN PMO operates and
manages the ARPANET, including the node software and hardware.  DARPA sets
specific policy for the ARPANET within the overall guidelines set by the
DDN PMO.  DARPA also pays the backbone operating costs of the ARPANET
portion of the DDN, and authorizes ARPANET use.  The two agencies, DARPA
and DCA, work closely together to keep the DDN viable and on the cutting
edge of network technology.

2.6  Requirements for Legitimate DDN Access

Only users engaged in U.S. government business or applicable research, or
directly involved in providing operations or system support for
government-owned or government-sponsored computer communications equipment
may use the DDN.  The network is not available for use by the general
public, nor is it intended to compete with comparable commercial network
services.  Users of the DDN must not violate privacy or other applicable
laws, and should not use the networks for advertising or recruiting
purposes without the express permission of the DDN PMO.

Unauthorized use of the DDN is illegal.  Persons who break into government
networks or use government computer resources without authorization will be
prosecuted.  Hosts that permit this type of access will be disconnected
from the network.


3.1  Host Access

To open a connection through the network from one host to another, a user
must first "log in" to one of the hosts from a terminal.  After logging in,
he may "open a connection" across the network to a second host.  Once this
connection is established, it is possible to log in to the remote host
computer and work there.  When the user finishes and logs out of the remote
computer, the network connection is closed, and he is back where he began,
logged into the first host.  In this way it is easy for a user to access
more than one computer (assuming he has authorized access and a valid
account on each).

This direct host-to-host connection (called a "TELNET"  connection) is a
very useful form of network access because it lets one use tools and
programs on remote machines that may not be available locally.  It is also
possible to open a specialized host-to-host link called a file transfer or
"FTP" connection, which allows copying of files from one host to another.
Sections 5.1.2 and 5.1.3 provide specific details for executing
host-to-host TELNET and FTP connections.

              Figure 3-1:   Host Connection to a Remote Host

3.2  TAC Access

Another way of accessing the network is by connecting a hard-wired or
dial-up terminal  to a terminal access controller, or TAC, then logging
into the TAC by providing a "Userid" and "Access Code"  (password).  A TAC
allows a wide variety of terminals to communicate with any host on the
network without going through an intervening host.  After logging into the
TAC, the host is reachable by specifying its host address.

     NOTE: You must be a registered, authorized user to obtain a Userid and
     Access Code.  See details in Section 4.2.

               Figure 3-2:   TAC Connection to a Remote Host

3.3  Gateway Access

If a computer is attached to a local area network  (LAN)  or a non-DDN
network, a "gateway"  manages communication between it and the DDN.  The
gateway is "transparent", that is, the user will be largely unaware it is
there.  No special commands or syntax are needed for communication through
a gateway.  Figure 3-3 shows a gateway connection from a LAN to the DDN.

             Figure 3-3:   Gateway Connection to a Remote Host

3.4  Network Naming and Addressing

Each host on the DDN has a unique hostname and host address associated with
it as a means of identification.  This "address" tells network programs the
location of a host, and on which network it resides.  Thus, a hostname or
address must be known in order to use network services, such as TELNET or
FTP, or when opening a connection to a host from a TAC.

The hostname is part of the address string known as the "network mailbox",
and it is needed to send electronic mail across the network.  The hostname
is actually a synonym for the host address.  Hostnames are used because
they are easier to remember than the string of numbers that make up the
host address.  For each host address on the DDN, there is an equivalent
hostname and vice versa.

Figure 3-4 is an example of a host address on the DDN.  The host address
contains four units of information, each part separated by a decimal point.
These units indicate the network address, the host port number on the PSN,
a reserved section (usually zero), and the number of the PSN to which the
host is connected.

In the example shown, the host is on MILNET (network number 26 for MILNET,
10 for ARPANET).  It occupies port "three" on PSN 16, and its network name
is AMES-VMSB.  When using it, treat this string of numbers and periods (or
the corresponding string of letters and separators) as an "address string"
of characters.  This string is important, and it must be correct otherwise

                     |                | | |  |..PSN number
                 host name            | | |.....reserved
                                      | | port on PSN
                                      | number

              Figure 3-4:   Sample Host Name and Host Address

mail cannot be delivered.  (See Section for how to look up host
names and addresses.)  At this point you need only understand the network
address concept and be aware that each host and network has a unique name
and address.

3.5  TAC Connection to the Network

The following is a simple scenario showing how to log in to a TAC.  For
more detailed instructions on using a TAC and setting terminal parameters,
consult the TAC Users' Guide [1].

Before using a TAC for terminal access to a host on the DDN, you must:

   - Register as a network user with the NIC

   - Obtain permission to access a TAC

   - Obtain a Userid and Access Code (password) (See Section 4.)

   - Learn the address of the host or hosts to which you wish to
     (See Section

   - Have a valid account on a MILNET or ARPANET host, so that you may
     log in once you are connected

   - Make sure your terminal is one which may be connected to a TAC.
     (See the TAC Users' Guide [1] for details.)

3.5.1  Dial-up TACs

This section describes the procedures for connecting to a TAC using the
telephone system.  Because the exact steps required to "dial up" the TAC
depend on your local hardware setup, check with local site representatives
for details.  An overview of the basic procedures is presented in the next
few sub-sections.  Locating the Closest TAC

The phone number of the nearest TAC may be obtained directly from the
network by using the TACNEWS service (see Section 5.2.3), or by calling the
DDN Network Information Center at (800) 235-3155.  The phone number of a
specific TAC may be obtained from the NIC WHOIS server.  (See Section
5.2.1.)  Using a Terminal With An Acoustic Coupler

Dial the TAC number on a telephone, and listen for a tone.  When you hear
the tone, put the telephone handset into the coupler cuffs, being careful
to observe the position indicated for the hand set.  Using a Dial-up Modem

The modem will be wired to your telephone and your terminal.  (Consult the
instructions that come with the modem to attach it to your terminal and set
it properly.)  In general, you will dial the TAC number on the telephone
and wait for the tone, switch the modem from "voice" to "data", and set the
handset back on the telephone cradle.  Note that the speed of the terminal
must match the speed of the modem.  Also note that some modems are "smart",
i.e., you will not have to use the telephone to dial the number, but
instead will type some instructions to your terminal, such as "DIAL 12345"
or "D12345."  The modem will then dial the number and make the connection
for you.  See your modem instruction manual for exact details.

3.5.2  Hardwired TACs

Here you will need to consult a local user representative or the Node Site
Coordinator to learn the procedure for getting to the TAC.  It will vary
depending upon what equipment is being used and how it is configured at
your location.

3.6  TAC Login

Once you have successfully connected to the TAC, you must "get its
attention".  Do this by pressing the <Control> key and the letter "Q"
simultaneously.  Note that a few TACs have been programmed to "wake-up" as
soon as a connection is made.  If the TAC is of this variety, you will get
the TAC banner message immediately.  Also note that you must use a host
address, as a hostname will not be accepted by the TAC.


       [Welcome to...SRI TAC 112 # :24]
       @o<Return>              ;Type an "@", followed by
                                         ;"o" for "open", followed by
                                         ;the address of the host
                                         ;you wish to reach, e.g.,
                                         ;, the address of SRI
       [TAC userid:]USERID<Return>       ;Type the Userid you have
                                         ;been assigned.
       [Access Code:]ACCESS-CODE<Return> ;Type the TAC Access Code
                                         ;you have been assigned.
       [Login OK
       TCP trying...Open
       SRI-NIC...etc.]                   ;Now you are at the SRI-NIC
                                         ;machine, and can use the
                                         ;services there.

When you have finished using host SRI-NIC, logging off will put you back at
the TAC again.  If you wish to connect to another host, type:

       @c<Return>                        ;Type an "@" followed by "c"
                                         ;to close the previous
       @o HOST-ADDRESS<Return>           ;Proceed as before, giving
                                         ;another host address.

To disconnect from the TAC altogether, type:

       @l<Return>                        ;You are now logged out of
       [logged out                       ;the TAC; and will probably
       connection closed.]               ;want to disconnect the
                                         ;telephone from the modem or
                                         ;coupler and hang up.

3.6.1  TAC Login Hints

When entering your TAC Userid and Access Code:

   - A <Return> terminates each input line and causes the next prompt
     to appear.

   - It does not matter whether you type your TAC Userid and Access
     Code in upper or lower case letters.

   - The Access Code either does not print at all, or is printed over
     to obscure it from view.

   - If you make a mistake, use the BACKSPACE key, <Control>H, to
     delete a single character.  Use <Control>U to delete an entire

   - If you make a mistake while entering either the TAC Userid or
     your Access Code, type <Control>C to abort the login process and
     return you to the TAC command mode so you can try again.

   - You will remain logged in to the TAC as long as you have an open
     connection.  If the connection is closed, you will have ten
     minutes to open another connection without having to log in
     again.  If you do not open another connection within ten minutes,
     the TAC will attempt to hang up your connection and will
     automatically log you out.

3.6.2  Common TAC Login Problems

If you are logging into a MILNET TAC and the login sequence fails, examine
your TAC Access Card carefully to be sure that you are entering the Userid
and Access Code correctly.  Note that Access Codes never contain a zero, a
one, a "Q" or a "Z", since each of these characters may be mistaken for
another.  If you see what appears to be one of these characters on your
card, it is really the letter "O" (oh), or "G" (gee), the letter "L" (el),
or the number "2" (two).

If you follow all of the above steps, and you are sure you are entering
your MILNET Userid and Access Code correctly, but still cannot log in, call
the DDN Network Information Center at (800) 235-3155 for help.

If you are an ARPANET TAC user, you will not be issued a TAC Access Card.
If you are having trouble accessing an ARPANET TAC, you may change your
password using the ARPANET TAC User Database Tool described in Section 4.2,
and try again.  If you are not in the ARPANET TAC User Database, you should
check with the Responsible Person (RP) (See Section 6.3) associated with
your organization to get permission to be registered in the database.  If
the RP or his representative has not registered you already, you will then
need to register yourself in the database in order to get your ARPANET
Userid and Access Code.  If, after these steps are taken, you are still
experiencing difficulties accessing the TAC, call the NIC for assistance.

3.7  A Word About Personal Computers

The DDN PMO is currently studying the various means of connecting personal
computers (PCs) to the network.  PCs can be attached to the DDN in several
ways, including as hosts.  At present, however, most personal computers on
the DDN are not hosts, i.e., they have not implemented the network
protocols and are not attached directly to a PSN.  Functioning simply as
terminals, they have only terminal capabilities as far as the network is

Like a terminal, a PC can be connected to a host or TAC through either a
dedicated line or a dial-up line.  In both cases the PC will need software
to make the PC imitate a terminal.

Once you have the proper equipment assembled, you will need to configure
the software for your particular system.  The following parameters will
often need to be set:

speed     The baud rate (in bits/second) at which data is sent and
          received; usually 300 or 1200 baud if your connection is through
          a modem.  For direct lines, check with your Node Site

data bits Usually set at 7.

stop bits Usually set at 1.

parity    Usually set to "even" or "none".

If these settings do not work, ask local user representatives or host
personnel what your system requires.  Consult the documentation that
accompanies your personal computer, software, and/or modem for details of

Local site representatives should be the first point of contact for
PC-related problems.  If you have no such representative, contact the Host
Administrator for the host you are trying to reach.  The NIC may also be
able to help with some of the problems you encounter.  Check to see if your
organization has a PC users group, as other users can be a valuable source
of advice.  Also, there are a number of general and machine-specific PC
interest groups on the net, which can provide a broad range of information
and answers.  (See Appendix A for information on these groups.)


4.1  Network User Registration

Each individual who has TELNET or TAC access to DDN must be registered in
the NIC WHOIS Database.  You will find it useful to be registered in this
database, because it serves as an electronic "white pages" for DDN users.

4.1.1  The Registration Template

To register in the NIC WHOIS Database, you will need to fill out a copy of
the NIC registration template (Figure 4-1) and send it to the network
mailbox REGISTRAR@SRI-NIC.ARPA.  This template may be obtained via file
transfer (FTP) from the SRI-NIC machine (, using the
pathname NETINFO:USER-TEMPLATE.TXT, or you may key in the information
required yourself.  In addition to the template, this file contains
detailed instructions and samples to help with completing the form.
(Instructions for using FTP to retrieve a file are included in Section

    FULL NAME: Coleman, Jr., Arthur F.     ; Last name, first name, mid
                                           ; initials
    U.S. MAIL ADDRESS: SRI International   ; Include codes, mail stops,
                       Room EJ291
                       333 Ravenswood Avenue
                       Menlo Park, CA 94025
    PHONE: (415) 859-0000                  ; Give both commercial and A
                                           ; if available, e.g. (AV) 12
    AUTHORIZING HOST: SRI-NIC              ; List the host on which you
                                           ; your primary login account
                                           ; through which you directly
                                           ; ARPANET or MILNET.
    PRIMARY LOGIN NAME: Coleman                      ; Name you log in 
                                                     ;mail is normally 
    MILNET TAC ACCESS? (y/n):                        ; Enter "y" if you
                                                     ; TAC access.
    TERMINATION DATE:                      ; Enter date this assignment
    military users, estimated graduation date for students, end of
    contract period for contractors, estimated elapse date for temporar

               Figure 4-1:   DDN User Registration Template

4.2  TAC User Registration

TAC access requires official authorization, and a "Userid" and "Access
Code" (Password).  Note that there are separate access systems for MILNET
and ARPANET TACs. Authorization to use TACs on one network does not provide
access to TACs on the other network.  To access TACs on both networks, you
must be authorized twice and have a separate Userid and Access Code for
each network.  However, once you are registered and have obtained a Userid
and Access Code, the TAC login procedure is the same for any TAC,
regardless of which network it is on (See Section 3.6).

On the MILNET, the person authorizing MILNET TAC access is the Host
Administrator.  Each MILNET TAC user is issued a TAC access card by the NIC
containing his or her Userid and Access Code.  The NIC cannot issue a card
until approval has been received from the Host Administrator of the user's
primary MILNET host.  Cards are issued to individuals, not to groups of

     NOTE: If you need a TAC card for a limited time, your Host
     Administrator can issue you a TAC "guest card" which is good for three

On the ARPANET, the person authorizing TAC access is known as the
"Responsible Person." After obtaining permission to use a TAC, each ARPANET
TAC user must register or be registered in the ARPANET TAC User Database
Tool located on ARPANET host USC-ISIC.ARPA (

The two TAC authorization and registration schemes are separate, and each
is handled differently.  Here are some points to remember about TAC access:

   - If you require both ARPANET and MILNET TAC access, you must
     register twice -- once in each system.

   - You will be issued a card for MILNET TAC access on which is
     printed your Userid and Access Code.  The card is automatically
     printed and sent in a sealed mailer, so it is seen only by the
     user to whom it is issued.

   - You will not be issued a card for ARPANET TAC access.  Rather,
     you will obtain your Userid and Access Code directly from the
     ARPANET TAC User Database Tool or from the Responsible Person.

   - If you have problems with the TAC card you have been issued, or
     if you need assistance with TAC access procedures, call the NIC
     on (800) 235-3155.

It is beyond the scope of this document to give the details of each
registration scheme [5, 6].  Contact the appropriate Host Administrator for
MILNET or the Responsible Person for ARPANET for specifics, or phone the
NIC on (800) 235-3155 for documentation and further assistance.  See
Section 5.2.4 for instructions on obtaining online lists of the Host
Administrators or Responsible Persons.


5.1  Network Tools

A computer attached to the DDN can reach a large community of users and
access a wide variety of software.  Research tools, documents, files and
mailing lists are all readily accessible through the DDN.  This section
describes the procedures needed to use these network tools, three of which
are major network services: electronic mail, file transfer (FTP) and remote
login (TELNET).  These services are integral to the DDN protocols, and thus
are offered by any host that has implemented the full set of network

Although the services discussed here perform the same functions on every
host, what the user sees may differ from host to host since the software is
often customized to suit the characteristics of the host operating system.
For this reason it is important to read local online documentation and
consult online "HELP" files for specific details on using these services on
any given host.  Check with the local Host Administrator or User
Representative for more information.  The sections below describe in
general terms how to use electronic mail, FTP, and TELNET.

Additional network services are provided for users by the NIC. Three of
these -- WHOIS/NICNAME, NIC/Query, and TACNEWS -- are also described.

5.1.1  Electronic Mail

A most useful and the most used service on the DDN is the mail service,
which lets users send messages electronically to one another.  System
programs accept and store mail messages that come in for users from other
hosts.  These programs automatically recognize the incoming traffic as
electronic mail, translate it to a format compatible with the receiving
mail program, and direct the message to the correct recipient.  Most users
have an online mail file where all messages addressed to them are stored.
Ask your local User Representative or Host Administrator what this file is
called on your machine, if you do not know.

Mail can be printed out, read, or deleted using the local mail program.  Do
not edit or alter the structure of your mail file except through a mail
program, as each message has unique characteristics that identify it as
"mail", such as a header, a character count, and a time stamp.  Editing the
mail file directly alters these characteristics, so that the mail program
will no longer recognize this data as "mail".

Host computers usually provide one or more programs for reading and sending
mail.  Most mail programs have these features in common:

   a. Reading messages

      Most mail programs have a command for reading incoming messages,
      usually with options for selecting and displaying specific
      messages from among the messages received.

   b. Printing, deleting, or moving messages

      Messages can be printed (if a printer is available), moved into
      other files or deleted.  It is important to learn how to delete
      or move messages after reading them; otherwise your mail file
      may overflow your allotted space and prevent further mail from
      being delivered.

   c. Sending messages

      A user can send messages to other users on the same host, or to
      users on any host on the network that has a mail service.  No
      passwords are required to send mail, but it is necessary to know
      the network mailbox or "address" of the person to whom you are
      sending the mail.  Network mailboxes usually take the form

DDN mail should have a network address made up of a username and a
hostname.  Occasionally the hostname can be omitted.  For example, if you
are sending a message to a user on the same host as the one you are using,
you need not indicate the hostname.  This is similar to an interoffice
memo, which rarely needs the full name and address of the organization,
since all interoffice memos are being sent within the same organization and
therefore have the same address.  On the other hand, a message sent to
"John Smith, U.S.A." has little chance of being delivered without more
information.  The same is true of an electronic message without a valid
address.  The message will be returned to the sender with an error message.
If mail is undeliverable due to network or machine problems, most mailers
will try to resend the message several times before returning it to the

Many mail programs allow the use of a local text editor to revise or
correct the text of a message in preparation.  The mail programs themselves
usually have simple editing features such as backspacing a character or a
word, or deleting a line.  An entire file may be sent as the text of a
message, assuming the file is not too large.

Following are examples of procedures for sending and reading mail, and
getting help within three common network mail programs.  The three programs
illustrated are UNIX(UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell
Laboratories) MAIL, BBN's INFOMAIL(INFOMAIL is a registered trademark of
BBN Communications Corporation), and TOPS20(TOPS20 is a registered
trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation) MM.  Remember these are
generalized scenarios; your host may run a different program, or a
different implementation than the one shown.

Only the bare essentials for using these mail programs are shown.  Each is
a very rich system with many useful features.  We urge you to read the
manuals for your mail system, and to explore the online "HELP" facilities
to expand your knowledge of what it has to offer.  UNIX MAIL - Sending mail

     NOTE:  UNIX is case sensitive and most UNIX systems require that
     commands be entered as lower case typein.

    [%]mail<Return>   ;At the system prompt[%],
                                          ;the user types "mail",
                                          ;to start the mail program,
                                          ;followed by a <Space> and th
                                          ;recipient's network mailbox.

    This is to remind you of our<Return>  ;Then the text of the
    meeting at 2:00.<Return><Control>D    ;message is entered.
                                          ;<Control>D sends the message
    [%]                                   ;When the system prompt reapp
                                          ;the message has been sent.  UNIX MAIL - Reading mail

    [%]mail<Return>                        ;Starts "mail" program,
    [You have new mail                     ;and lists new mail received

    New mail:1) 16/Dec SMITH@USC-ISI.ARPA (292) Where is RFC 212?
             2) 17/Dec DAVID@SRI-NIC.ARPA (146) Re: Where is RFC 212?
             3) .....etc.]

    [m:]p 1<return>                        ;"p" for print followed by
                                           ;a <Space> and a number
                                           ;displays the full message
                                           ;for that number.  UNIX MAIL - Getting Help

    [%]man mail<Return>                    ;Connects you to the
                                           ;online Mail manual


    [m:]help<Return>                       ;Displays help or a
    [m:]?<Return>                          ;list of Mail commands.  INFOMAIL - Sending Mail

     NOTE:  INFOMAIL runs under the UNIX operating system.  Because UNIX is
     case sensitive, most systems require that commands be entered as lower
     case typein.

    [DDN1->]infomail<Return>          ;Starts Infomail.

    [Infomail -- Version...
    Username:]CODEB999<Return>        ;Logs into Infomail.


    [-->]compose<Return>              ;At Infomail prompt
                                      ;user gives command
                                      ;to create a message.

    [To:]COMMAND@DDN2.ARPA<Return>   ;Enter recipient's
                                     ;network mailbox.
    [From:]CODEB999@DDN1             ;Infomail fills in
                                     ;sender's mailbox.
    [Subject:]Dial-ups<Return>       ;Enter subject.

    [Date:12 April 1985]              ;Infomail adds date.

    [Text:]Request dial-ups<Return>
           for our site.<Return>      ;Enter message,
                                      ;ending each line
                                      ;with "<Return>".
                                      ;End message by
    .<Return>                         ;typing a period on
                                      ;the left margin
                                      ;followed by a
    [-->]quit<Return>                 ;Type "quit" to exit Infomail.  INFOMAIL - Reading Mail

    [DDN2->]infomail<Return>           ;Starts Infomail.

    [Infomail -- Version...
    Username:]COMMAND<Return>          ;Logs into Infomail.


     1 FROM: CODEB999 / SUBJECT: DIAL-UPS / 12 Apr;Info on new messages
     2 FROM: AF@DDN1 / SUBJECT: SCHEDULE / 12 Apr;received is displayed

    -->]next<Return>                  ;At Infomail prompt
                                      ;user gives command
    [To: COMMAND@DDN2.ARPA            ;to display first
    From: CODEB999@DDN1.ARPA          ;message
    Subject: DIAL-UPS
    Date: 12 April 1985
    Request dial-ups for our site.

    ----------END OF DOCUMENT----------

    -->]next<Return>                  ;At Infomail prompt
                                      ;user gives command to
    [To: COMMAND@DDN2.ARPA            ;display next message,
    From: AF@DDN1.ARPA                ;etc., down through
    Subject: SCHEDULE                 ;the list.
    Date: 12 April 1985
    What is the planned schedule for the Infomail demo?]

    ----------END OF DOCUMENT----------

    -->]quit<Return>                  ;Type "quit" to exit Infomail.  INFOMAIL - Getting Help

    -->]?<Return>                         ;Lists all possible
                                          ;commands at that point

    -->]COMMANDNAME ?<Return>             ;Lists possible
                                          ;input to complete
                                          ;a given command

    -->]describe COMMANDNAME<Return>      ;Tells what a command
                                          ;does and how to use it

    -->]example COMMANDNAME<Return>       ;Prints an example
                                          ;for a given command

INFOMAIL manuals are available from BBN Communications Corporation,
10 Moulton St., Cambridge, MA 02238.  MM - Sending Mail

     NOTE:  MM runs under the TOPS20 operating system.

    [@]mm<Return>                    ;Loads MM mail program
                                     ;and displays MM> prompt
    [MM>]send<Return>                ;Enters message-sending mode

    To:]DAVID@SRI-NIC.ARPA<Return>   ;Type recipient's network mailbox

    [Subject:]Where is RFC 792?<Return>;Type subject of message

    [Message (end with ESC or CTRL/Z):]
    Where can I find an <Return>      ;Enter text of message
    online copy of RFC 792?<Control>Z ;End each line of text
                                      ;with a <Return>
                                      ;Type <Control>Z to send
                                      ;the message.

    [MM>]quit<Return>                 ;Exits from MM back to the
    [@]                               ;Exec prompt, "@".  MM - Reading Mail

    [@You have a message from SUE]   ;At login, the system
                                     ;notifies the user
                                     ;that new mail exists.
    [@]mm<Return>                    ;The user enters MM.
                                     ;Next he enters read mode.
    [MM>]r<Return>                   ;The system scrolls
                                     ;all unseen messages.
    [R>]q<Return>                    ;The 1st "quit" returns
                                     ;the user to "MM>",
    [MM>]q<Return>                   ;the 2nd "quit" exits
    [@]                              ;from MM back to the Exec prompt,  MM - Getting Help


    [MM>]help<Return>                 ;Displays help or a
         ?<Return>                    ;list of available commands.

    [MM>]help COMMANDNAME<Return>     ;Will print a brief
                                      ;explanation of that

5.1.2  FTP

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) makes it possible to move a file from one
computer to another, even if each computer has a different operating system
and file storage format.  Files may be data, programs, text -- anything
that can be stored online.

Using FTP requires that you know the hostname or host address of the remote
host, a username and password on that host, and the name of the file to be
retrieved.  You can then copy available files either to or from the remote
host.  Several hosts provide the username "anonymous" for FTP retrieval of
files from their system.  This is called the FTP "anonymous login

Any string of characters will be accepted as the password for an anonymous
login.  Anonymous login works ONLY with FTP, and is not an account that can
be accessed for general use.  Also, you cannot use the "anonymous"
convention to send files to a remote host, as this requires a login
account.  You may only pull files from a host on which you do not have a
login account to your local workspace.  Finally, not every file can be
FTPed.  Only files that have a protection permitting transfer, i.e.,
allowing public "read access", can be FTPed.

These are the general steps for transferring a file:

   - Log in to the local host, and invoke the FTP program

   - Provide the hostname or host address for the remote host

   - Once connected to the remote host, log in with username and

   - Issue commands to copy or send files

   - When finished, log out from the remote host, and exit from the
     FTP program.

Depending upon the implementation of FTP at the user's host and the remote
host, it may also be possible to display a directory listing of public
files on the remote host, as well as system status information.

The first scenario below demonstrates copying ("FTPing") a file from a
remote host.  The user is logged in to a computer that has a TOPS20
operating system.  He connects to another TOPS20 computer, SRI-NIC, copies
over a file, then breaks the connection and exits FTP.  How to FTP a File (TOPS 20)

    [@]ftp sri-nic<Return>

    [[Assuming 36-bit connections, paged transfers] <SRI-NIC FTP Server
    FTP!]login anonymous<Return>           ;Some systems use "log"
                                           ;instead of "login".

    [< User ANONYMOUS logged in at Wed 6-Jun-84 14:36-PDT, job 17.
    FTP!]get rfc:rfc931.txt<Return>        ;Here the user will be asked
                                           ;what to name the new copy o
                                           ;the file being transferred.
                                           ;Typing <Return> causes loca
                                           ;filename to be the same as
                                           ;original file.
    [ PS:<NETINFO>RFC931.TXT.1 (to local file)]  <Return>
    [ PS:<NETINFO>RFC931.TXT.1 => <SMITH>RFC931.TXT.1;P777700 !! [OK]

    [< QUIT command received. Goodbye.
    FTP>]quit<Return>                      ;the 2nd "quit" exits from
    [@]                                    ;FTP back to the Exec prompt

Now a file named "RFC931.TXT" should be in the user's workspace on his
local host.  How to FTP a File (UNIX)

In this example both hosts are UNIX systems.

     NOTE: Unlike TOPS 20, you must supply a local filename.

    [%] ftp sri-tsc<Return>

    [Connected to sri-tsc.ARPA.
    220 SRI-TSC FTP Server Process
    Name (sri-tsc.ARPA:Smith):] anonymous<Return>

    [Password (sri-nic.ARPA:anonymous):] guest<Return>

    [331 ANONYMOUS user ok, send real ident as password.
    230 User ANONYMOUS logged in at Thu 4-Apr-85 09:47-PST, job 29.

    ftp>] get public/readme<Return>                 ;User must type in
      localfile: filename                           ;the actual file na
    [200 Port 6.167 at host accepted.  ;of the file to whi
    150 ASCII retrieve of public/readme started.    ;the transfer will 
    226 Transfer completed.
    9259 bytes received in 2.4 seconds (3.8 Kbytes/s)

    ftp>] quit<Return>

    [221 QUIT command received. Goodbye.
    %]  How to FTP a Directory Listing

This scenario demonstrates how to get a listing of public directory
(This feature is not provided by all hosts; check with the online help
system or local user representative to find out if it is supported.)  The
user is logged in to a host running the UNIX operating system.  He uses FTP
to connect to the host SRI-NIC, then logs in under the username
"anonymous", with the password "guest".  He enters the "dir" (directory)
command for the directory RFC: to see the names of accessible files.
(Since the directory is long, only the first few files and the last file
are shown for the sake of example.)

After the directory listing has been displayed, the user then can copy a
file or files from the remote host directory.  He issues the FTP commands
"bye", and "quit", which break the connection to the remote host and
returns him to the operating system.



    [[Assuming 36-bit connections, paged transfers] < SRI-NIC FTP Serve
    FTP>]login anonymous<Return>


    [< User ANONYMOUS logged in at Wed 6-Jun-84 14:14-PDT, job 31.
    FTP>]dir rfc:<Return>

    [< List started.

    [< QUIT command received. Goodbye.


5.1.3  TELNET

Another common way to use the network is to log in to a remote host from a
local host by using TELNET.  Once connected and logged in to the remote
host, the user can enter data, run programs, or do any other operation,
just as if he were logged in directly.

The steps for running TELNET may be summarized as follows:

   - Log in to an initial host.

   - Invoke the TELNET program on that host.

   - Identify by hostname or host address the remote host you wish to

   - Once connected to the remote host, log in with username and
     password for that host.

   - When finished working on the remote host, type the command to log
     out.  Then break the connection (if it is not broken
     automatically upon logout).  You are now back where you began on
     the initial host.

A specialized use of TELNET is to connect to a particular assigned "port"
or "socket" on a given host.  This type of connection takes the user
directly to the program or service offered on that socket.  The socket will
have an assigned socket number (see the RFC Index for the the latest list
of Assigned Numbers).  To connect to a socket, use its number with the
hostname or host address. (See Sections and

TELNET has many other advanced features, too numerous to discuss here.
Check your local TELNET user program for online documentation, or talk to
your local Host Administrator or User Representative for more information.

In the following example, a user "TELNETs" from a local UNIX host to a
remote TOPS20 host.  Once the connection is made, the prompts, commands,
etc., are those of the TOPS20 environment.  It looks to the user as though
he or she is logged directly in to the TOPS20 computer.

After completing work on the remote host, the user gives the TOPS20 logout
command.  This returns the user to the TELNET program on the local
computer, ends TELNET, and displays the local operating system prompt
("%").  TELNET Using Hostname

    [%]telnet sri-nic<Return>

    connected to
    escape character is '↑]'.

    SRI-NIC.ARPA 2060, TOPS20...]
    [@]login USERNAME PASSWORD<Return>

    ...USER SESSION...


    [Connection closed by remote host
    %]  TELNET Using the Host Address

The user can also use a host address to establish a connection to a host
via TELNET.  This example shows a user on a TOPS20 system connecting to a
remote UNIX host.

NOTE: The network address must be enclosed in brackets.

    [@]telnet []<Return>

    [ Trying...  Open

    4.2 BSD UNIX (sri-tsca)


                                      ;User now logged in with full
    ...USER SESSION...                ;use of the local system.


    [Connection closed by foreign host
    @]                                ;User is returned to the
                                      ;local system.  TELNET to a Socket Using the Host Address

This example shows the user connecting to the ARPANET TAC User Database
Tool (socket 65) on host USC-ISIC.

    [@]telnet [] 65<Return>  ;Note blank space between the
                                      ;command, the host net address, a
    [ Trying... Open                  ;the socket number.

    TAC Access Control, Version 1.0.7, 21 November 1984
    For help type 'Help'.  Use '?' for options in commands. ]

    ...USER SESSION...

    [TACAC>]logout <Return>           ;Where "TACAC>" is the TAC
                                      ;User Database Tool prompt.
                                      ;User logs out.

    [ Logged out at 21-Nov-84 12:45:10
    Connection closed by foreign host ]  TELNET to a Socket Using the Hostname

    [@]telnet usc-isic 65<Return>     ;Remote host name and socket numb
                                      ;Socket 65 is the socket
                                      ;providing the ARPANET TAC
                                      ;User Database Tool
    [ Trying... Open
    TAC Access Control, Version 1.0.7, 21 November 1984
    For help type 'Help'.  Use '?' for options in commands. ]

    ...USER SESSION...


    [ Logged out at 21-Nov-84 12:46:03
    Connection closed by foreign host

5.2  NIC Network Services

NOTE:  The NIC provides the "server" portion of the services described
below.  Local hosts provide the user program that accesses the server.
Implementations of the user programs may vary depending on the local
environment; therefore, it is important to consult online documentation or
"HELP" programs on a given host computer for specific instructions on using
these user programs.


WHOIS/NICNAME is the NIC program that looks up information in an electronic
"white pages" of network users.  It lists name, network mailbox, U.S. mail
address, telephone number, and host for each entrant in its database(This
information is also available in hardcopy in the DDN Directory; however,
WHOIS provides the most current set of data.).  The "user" portion of this
program runs on a local host.  It passes its query to the NIC "server"
program, which reaches into the NIC WHOIS Database and sends the answer
back to the server, then back to the local user program, and finally to the
user's terminal.  This movement back and forth across the network is
transparent to the user, so that the service seems as if it were local.
This is known as a "query-response" service.

The user supplies WHOIS with either the name or the NIC "handle" of the
person or organization he is trying to identify.  The NIC handle is a
unique identifier assigned by the NIC to each person or organization in the
database.  WHOIS responds to a query in one of three ways:

   - If a unique record for the desired individual or organization is
     found, the name, NIC handle, organization, mailing address, and
     network mailbox are displayed immediately.

   - If several records match the name given, a brief list of the
     matching entries is displayed and the user is asked to choose the
     correct match by using the handle (a unique string of characters
     in parentheses following the name).  A search by handle will
     produce the expanded entry for the individual or organization
     matching that handle.

   - If no record matches the request, WHOIS will display the message
     "?No record for name USERNAME", where "USERNAME" is the name of
     the person or organization being requested.

The following examples show the search capabilities of WHOIS.  WHOIS Search by Name

       [@]whois roscoe<Return>              ;Note that on some
                                            ;UNIX machines, the
                                            ;command "nicnam" is
                                            ;used rather than

       [Accessing NICNAME server at SRI-NIC...

          ROSCOE, Joe A. (JAR)         JROSCOE@HOST-1
          Air Force Data Systems
            Design Center/SDTS                    ;There is only one
          Willits Air Force Base, W.Va. 12345     ;"Roscoe", so a
          Phone: (123) 456-7890 (AV) 654-7890     ;complete entry is
          MILNET TAC user                         ;displayed for him.  WHOIS Search by Partial Name

You may search for partial names by using the partial name followed by
three dots (...).

     NOTE:  This feature will only work if the three dots follow the
     partial spelling.  Also, this kind of search is apt to produce
     multiple "hits".

For example:

       [@]whois ros...<Return>

       [Accessing NICNAME server at SRI-NIC...

       Rosati, David (DR16)            Rosati@BAR       (234) 567-8901
       Rosales, Alphonso L.  (ALR)     Rosales@SRI-NIC  (345) 678-9011
       Roscoe, Joe A. (JAR)            Roscoe@HOST-1    (123) 456-7890
       Schuman, Richard O. (ROS)       Schuman@FOO      (456) 789-0123

       There are 25 more entries.  Show them? (Y/N)] N<Return>

Note that the partial search also finds any NIC handles that begin with
"ros" as in the Schuman entry.  To obtain a full entry for any one of
these, search on the handle (the text in parentheses just after the name).  WHOIS Search by Handle

In case of multiple "hits" to a query, search by the unique handle to get
the full entry of the exact hit you wish to display.

       [@]whois jar<Return>                     ;"JAR" is the Handle fo
                                                ;the "Roscoe" entry
       [Accessing NICNAME server at SRI-NIC...

          ROSCOE, Joe A. (JAR)         JROSCOE@HOST-1
          Air Force Data Systems
            Design Center/SDTS
          Willits Air Force Base, W.Va. 12345
          Phone: (123) 456-7890 (AV) 654-7890
          MILNET TAC user  WHOIS Search by Hostname

You may use WHOIS to quickly obtain a host address, if you know the
hostname.  To do this type:

    [@]whois ddn1<Return>                     ;Where DDN1 is an
                                              ;example of a HOSTNAME.
    [Accessing NICNAME server at SRI-NIC...   ;The system returns
       Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (DDN1)    ;information about the
       Suite 400                              ;organization where the
       1300 North 17th Street                 ;host is located, as well
       Arlington, Virginia 22209              ;as the host's network
                                              ;address, nickname and
    NetAddress:                    ;key network contacts.
    NickName: DDN-1

    Host Administrator:
        Schutz, Michelle L.      (MLS6)    mschutz@ddn1
        (703) 524-4870

To see the list of registered USC-ISI users, repeat the command, preceding
the argument with a star.

    [@]whois *usc-isi<Return>

    University of Southern California (USC-ISI)
       Information Sciences Institute
       4676 Admiralty Way
       Marina Del Rey, California 90292-6695

       Nicknames: USC-ISIA,ISIA,ISI

       Host Administrator:
          Gordon, Vicki L.  (VLG)  VGORDON@USC-ISI
          (213) 822-1511 ext 284

    There are 1103 individual members:

    Aaron, P. D. (PDA)              AAPD@USC-ISI      (408) 626-2626
    Ackroyd, Bluto B. (BBA5)    BACKROYT@USC-ISI      (213) 555-5575
    Zulu, Robert (RZ7)              ZULUR@USC-ISI      (714) 866-2942
    Zylofone, Samuel (SZ2)          ZYLOS@USC-ISI      (408) 666-2323  WHOIS Search by TAC Name

You may use WHOIS to quickly obtain a TAC telephone number, if you know the
TAC's name.  To do this type:

    [@]whois sri-mil-tac<Return>              ;SRI-MIL-TAC is an
                                              ;example of a TAC name.
    SRI International (SRI-MIL-TAC)           ;The system returns
       Network Information Center             ;information about the
       333 Ravenswood Avenue                  ;organization where the
       Menlo Park, California 94025           ;TAC is located, the TAC
                                              ;dial-up number, host add
                                              ;and the name and phone n
                                              ;of the Node Side Coordin

       Phone: (415) 327-5440 (R3) [300/1200 bps] {B}


          Jacobsen, Ole  (OJ)  OLE@SRI-NIC
          (415) 859-4536  WHOIS Search by Node Name

WHOIS may be used to search by node (PSN) name.  To do this type:

    [@]whois sri73-imp<Return>        ;Where SRI73-imp is an
                                      ;example of a PSN name.

    SRI International (SRI73-IMP)     ;The system returns information
      Room EK289                      ;about the organization,
      333 Ravenswood Avenue           ;where the PSN is located,
      Menlo Park, California  94025
      Phone:  (415) 859-5921 [A]      ;PSN phone numbers,
      (415) 859-3550 or 859-5921

    IMP 73 on network (MILNET);PSN address, and the     SRI-NIC             ;hosts attached to that PSN.     SRI-WARF     SRI-MILNET-GW     SRI-MIL-TAC     SRI-NAURS

    Node Site Coordinator:             ;The name, address and phone num
     Jacobsen, Ole J.(OLE) OLE@SRI-NIC ;for the Node Site Coordinator
     (415) 859-4536                    ;is also provided.

For more information on using WHOIS, type:

    [@]whois help<Return>

If your local host does not run WHOIS/NICNAME, ask the Host Administrator
to install it.  The NIC can give him/her guidelines and sample user
programs on request.  If the program is not available locally, you can also
access it by establishing a TELNET connection to the SRI-NIC machine
( or, and then invoking WHOIS there, although this is
less convenient than using it locally.

5.2.2  NIC/QUERY

NIC/Query is a browsing system containing general information about the
Defense Data Network (DDN).  Each list of topics included under NIC/Query
is presented to the user as a numbered menu.

The program is easy to use and largely self-explanatory.  A login account
on the NIC machine is not required.  To access NIC/Query, open a TELNET
connection to the SRI-NIC machine.

    Open a TELNET connection to the SRI-NIC Host.

    [ Trying... Open

    SRI-NIC, TOPS20 ...
    @]nic<Return>                            ;or "query<Return>"


    NIC/Query is a NIC database system containing information about the
    Defense Data Network (DDN), including MILNET and ARPANET.  Each lis
    topics is presented to the user as a numbered menu of selections.

    - To see more detail on any of the topics below, type its correspon
    number followed by a carriage return, <CR>.

    - To leave NIC/Query, type 'quit<CR>'.

    - For more help and additional commands, type 'help<CR>'.

    1. INTERNET PROTOCOLS -- Describes Internet protocols
    2. PERSONNEL -- Directory of DDN users
    3. HOSTS -- Describes DDN hosts
    4. RFCS -- Lists Requests For Comments technical notes
    5. IENS -- Lists Internet Experiment Notes
    6. NIC DOCUMENTS -- Lists Documents available from the NIC

    _ for back, ↑ for up, + for top, or menu # (1-7):]

    ...USER SESSION...

    [_ for back, ↑ for up, + for top, or menu # (1-7):]q<Return>

    [Bye now!

    Connection closed by foreign host]

5.2.3  TACNEWS

TACNEWS is a NIC online service that offers login help to TAC users
(including the current list of MILNET and ARPANET TAC phone numbers), and
provides a mechanism for reading the DDN Newsletters and DDN Management
Bulletins.  Users should read these publications regularly to stay current
on DDN policies, announcements, and network news items.  Access TACNEWS by
logging into a TAC and typing:

    [TAC Userid:] USER-ID<Return>
    [Access Code:] ACCESS-CODE<Return>
    [Login OK
    TCP Trying...Open

     SRI-NIC, TOPS-20 Monitor 5.3(5751)-1
    *  For TACNEWS, enter:  tacnews<RETURN>
    *  To find the host administrator for host xy-z, enter:  whois xy-z
    *  Report system problems to Action@SRI-NIC or call (415) 859-5921
    @] tacnews<Return>
    SRI-NIC TACnews 1.3(34)-2...
    Send bugs or comments to TACNEWS@SRI-NIC.ARPA
    Stop output every 24 lines? (Y/N/length/?) Yes<Return>
      1. Announcements (updated 12-Aug-85)
    * 2. Dial-Ups (MILNET & ARPANET TAC telephone numbers, updated
         3-Dec-85, 9K chars)
    * 3. Login (Help with TAC login, updated 22-Nov-85, 5K chars)
      4. Newsletters (DDN News, updated 15-Jan-86)
      5. Bulletins (DDN Management bulletins, updated 14-Jun-85)
    Type a menu number ('HELP<CR>' for more info): ]

Alternatively you may also open a TELNET connection to SRI-NIC from a local
host to read TACNEWS as follows:

    Open a TELNET connection to the SRI-NIC Host.

    [Trying... Open
     SRI-NIC, TOPS-20 Monitor 5.3(5751)-1
    *  For TACNEWS, enter:  tacnews<RETURN>
    *  To find the host administrator for host xy-z, enter:  whois xy-z
    *  Report system problems to Action@SRI-NIC or call (415) 859-5921
     There are 7+7 jobs with load average  0.36

    SRI-NIC TACnews 1.3(34)-2...

If you wish to have newsletters and management bulletins delivered online
to your network mailbox, send a message to NIC@SRI-NIC.ARPA containing your
name and address and indicating that you wish to be on the online
distribution for the newsletters and bulletins.

5.2.4  Useful Online Reference Files at the NIC

Several public files on the SRI-NIC host are useful to network users. The
pathnames for these are listed below.  These files may be retrieved via
FTP, using USERNAME = "anonymous", PASSWORD = "guest".  (See Section 5.1.2
for FTP instructions.)


     Lists the Node Site Coordinators for each node or PSN on the ARPANET.


     Lists the Node Site Coordinators for each node or PSN on the MILNET.


     Lists the ARPANET Host Administrators for each ARPANET host. ARPANET
     Host Administrators can authorize MILNET TAC Access for ARPANET users.

     NOTE: Host Administrators cannot authorize ARPANET TAC access for any
     users.  This must be done by the Responsible Persons.


     Lists the MILNET Host Administrator for each MILNET host.  MILNET Host
     Administrators can authorize MILNET TAC Access for MILNET users.


     Lists the ARPANET Responsible Person who authorizes TAC access for
     users of ARPANET TACs.


     This file contains the Official Internet DoD Hostnames Table which
     lists the names and numbers of domains, networks, gateways, and hosts
     on the DoD internet.  It is designed to be machine-readable and so is
     not as "user-friendly" as the preceding lists.


     This file gives the geographical location for each TAC.  It is very
     useful for locating the TAC closest to you.


     Lists the telephone numbers needed to dial up MILNET and ARPANET TACs.

RFC:RFCnnn.TXT ;where "nnn" is the RFC number.

     Network technical notes, known as Requests for Comments, or RFCs, are
     online in the directory RFC: on the SRI-NIC host. New RFCs are
     announced to network users via an online distribution list maintained
     by the NIC.  Individuals wishing to be added to the RFC notification
     list should send a message to


     Lists all the RFCs in numerical order.  Includes author, title, date
     of issue, and RFC number for each RFC.


     Lists most network special interest groups (SIGs), with a description
     and network mailbox for each.

5.3  Guidelines for Network Conduct

The network environment is very different from the traditional workplace.
Rules for proper conduct are gradually emerging to fit this new
environment.  The rules presented here are guidelines relating to four
areas: passwords, file protection, plagiarism, and mail.

5.3.1  Passwords

Since use of the network is restricted, passwords, access codes, and TAC
cards should never be shared without the express permission of the original
owner and the person who authorized or issued them.  Change your host login
password regularly, and report any unauthorized use of passwords to your
Host Administrator.  MILNET TAC cards and records of host userids and
passwords should be kept in a safe place.  Users should be familiar with
and follow local security guidelines.

5.3.2  File Protection

Most operating systems have a method of protecting files from network read
and write access.  The recommended file protection default for directories
is "no read and no write to outside users".  In this case, a user can still
make files accessible to outside users over the network, but must knowingly
set file and directory protections to make this happen.

As a new user, you should find out what the protection default is on your
host, and be sure that files you don't want accessible to other users are
protected.  Ask the Host Administrator on the host you are using about
default file and directory protection settings, and how to protect and
unprotect files.

5.3.3  Plagiarism

Even if a file is unprotected, that is not an invitation to copy or read it
without first asking permission.  It is as inappropriate to read online
mail or rummage through online files without permission as it would be to
read a colleague's hardcopy mail or rummage around in his desk.

Electronic plagiarism of another's work is just as unethical as plagiarism
by any other means.  Be sure to credit users whose work you cite or ideas
you express.  Copyright laws must also be carefully observed and obeyed.

It is very easy and convenient to exchange code and programming across the
network.  Many of the developers of such code are extremely generous in
sharing their work.  Even so, before copying or using someone else's code,
be sure to get permission from the developer or maintainer, and credit the
source in your documentation.  Under no circumstances should programming or
code from anywhere on the network be used (verbatim or edited)
commercially, without the owner's explicit permission.

5.3.4  Mail

Electronic mail is a powerful communication tool that must be used with
care.  The following guidelines will help you avoid offending other users
and overloading the network.

It is easy to forward mail you receive; but the writer may never have
intended that anyone else read the message.  For this reason, it is wise to
check with the sender before forwarding a private message of any

The DDN is a business environment, so try to keep your messages short and
to the point.  It is easy to send off a quick message, only to realize a
moment later that you needed to say more.  To avoid this, organize your
thoughts and send a single message rather than several incomplete ones.
This will make your mail far more useful to the recipients, and minimize
the load on the network.

Online mail tends to change a person's style of communication.  Sending
mail is so quick that it is tempting to send your immediate reaction to a
message, rather than a more considered, appropriate response.  Do not use
derogatory or inappropriate language in messages, especially those sent to
discussion groups.  Keep in mind that no one likes to be offended or
embarrassed by careless comments.

Finally, if you regularly send mail to a large group, learn how to create a
mailing list.  Otherwise, each recipient must scroll through a list of the
mailboxes of all other recipients as a part of the message header.

Remember, use of the network is a privilege.  It is the duty of each
network user to use the network responsibly for its intended purposes, and
to obey general network policies.  In return, the network provides access
to many useful tools and to an online community of colleagues and other

5.4  If You Have a Network Use Problem

For Questions on:        Contact:
Terminal settings        Host Administrator or User Representative
Host login               Host Administrator or Host Administrator
MILNET TAC access        Host Administrator for your host
ARPANET TAC access       Responsible Person for your organization
TAC login procedure      Network Information Center
TAC line problems        Node Site Coordinator for the TAC
TAC phone numbers        NIC TACNEWS program
General DDN information  Network Information Center, (800) 235-3155


The three main service centers on the DDN and the ARPANET are:

   - The DDN Network Information Center (NIC)

   - The DDN Network Monitoring Centers (NMC) for the United States,
     Pacific, and European areas

   - The DDN Program Management Office (DDN PMO).

This section of the Guide describes the services provided by these
organizations and gives a list of key contacts for each center.

Instructions are also given on how to obtain the names of other key network
contacts, including:

   - The Host Administrators

   - The Node Site Coordinators

   - The ARPANET Responsible Persons

   - The Military Communications and Operations Command Contacts

   - DARPA

   - Contacts for ARPANET Administration.

These people and places will be key sources of information and help, so it
is important for you to familiarize yourself with them.

6.1  The DDN Network Information Center (NIC)

The DDN Network Information Center (NIC) is located at SRI International,
Menlo Park, CA, and is funded by the DDN PMO to provide general reference
services to DDN and ARPANET users via telephone, electronic mail, and U.S.
mail.  The NIC is the first place to turn if you are not sure who provides
the service you need, or who is the right person to contact.

The NIC supplies general information and assistance to network users,
particularly new users, on behalf of the DDN PMO.  NIC personnel work
closely with BBNCC, the network Host Administrators, Node Site
Coordinators, Responsible Persons, network protocol groups, vendors,
contractors, government agencies, and military sponsors to assist new users
and potential subscribers to obtain and disseminate pertinent network

Databases and information servers of general interest to network users are
provided by the NIC, including the WHOIS registry of network users, the
NIC/Query browsing system, TACNEWS, and the official DoD Name Service.
(Some of these services were described in Section 5.)  The NIC also serves
as the DDN Protocol Repository, and will soon be providing a BIBLIO server
for identifying network documents.

6.1.1  General Reference Service Provided by the NIC

                              (800) 235-3155

is the toll-free telephone number to call for user assistance.  Service is
Monday - Friday, 7 am to 4 pm, Pacific time.

Users who experience problems with using the network, in general, and with
terminal-to-TAC use, in particular, are encouraged to make use of this

The NIC host computer is a DEC-2065, running the TOPS20 operating system,
and its hostname is SRI-NIC.  It has two network addresses, and so is
accessible from either the MILNET or the ARPANET.  The network addresses
                  SRI-NIC (MILNET)

NIC online services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Operations personnel are in attendance from 4 am - 11 pm weekdays, and 8 am
- 12 pm weekends, Pacific time.

6.1.2  NIC Online Contacts

    Contact                            Network Mailboxes

    General user assistance and feedback                                   
    User registration and WHOIS updates                                    
    Hostname changes and updates       HOSTMASTER@SRI-NIC.ARPA
    SRI-NIC computer operations        ACTION@SRI-NIC.ARPA
    Comments on NIC publications and services                              
    Manager, NIC                       FEINLER@SRI-NIC.ARPA

6.1.3  NIC U.S. Mail Address

    DDN Network Information Center
    SRI International  -  Room EJ291
    333 Ravenswood Avenue
    Menlo Park, CA 94025

6.1.4  Documents Published by the NIC

The NIC also edits, publishes and distributes the following documents:


     A review of ARPANET subscriber requirements and guidelines for
     attaching equipment to the ARPANET.  Available for $10.00 prepaid from
     the NIC.

THE DDN DIRECTORY (formerly the ARPANET Directory).

     A directory of users and hosts on the network.  It includes the name,
     address, network mailbox, and telephone number for each network user
     included.  Available for $10.00 prepaid from the NIC.

     NOTE: Use the NIC WHOIS program, Section 5.2.1, for the most
     up-to-date directory information.


     A multi-volume reference set of experimental ARPANET and official DoD
     network protocols together with implementation details and related
     background information.  It can be ordered prepaid from the NIC for

     NOTE:  The NIC publishes the DDN Protocol Handbook as a source book
     for implementors and network researchers for informational purposes.
     Individual military standards (MIL STDS) for DoD protocols in use on
     the DDN are available from the Naval Publications and Forms Center,
     Code 3015, 5801 Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120, (215) 697-3321.


     A brief guide to DDN network tools and services designed to introduce
     users to the network.  Available for $10.00 prepaid from the NIC.  The
     Guide is also available online as [NETINFO:NUG.DOC].

RFCs (hardcopies).

     Requests for Comments or RFCs are a set of network technical notes.
     Hardcopies of RFCs can be ordered from the NIC.  There is a $5.00
     copying charge for each RFC under 100 pages, and a $10.00 copying
     charge for each RFC over 100 pages.  Also available online as


     The Vendors Guide lists software and hardware implementations of the
     DDN protocols, based upon information supplied by vendors.  It is
     available for $10.00 prepaid from the NIC.  This document is for
     information purposes only.  Entry on this list does not imply
     endorsement.  Also available online as [NETINFO:TCP-IP-

NOTE: All of the above documents have also been deposited at the Defense
Technical Information Center (DTIC).

6.2  Network Monitoring Centers (NMCs)

There are four Network Monitoring Centers.

   - The CONUS MILNET Monitoring Center (CMMC) located at DCA
     headquarters in Washington, DC

   - The Pacific MILNET Monitoring Center (PMMC) located at Wheeler
     AFB in Hawaii

   - The European MILNET Monitoring Center (EMMC) located in
     Vaihingen, Germany

   - The ARPANET Monitoring Center (AMC) located within the Network
     Operations Center (NOC) at BBN Communications Corporation

All provide operations support for several DoD packet-switching networks.
The NMCs concentrate on real-time network management, with the primary
objective of maximizing each network's operating efficiency.

BBNCC provides support for DDN in the areas of operations and technical
support, configuration management, software maintenance and enhancement,
hardware maintenance, and hardware requirements.

6.2.1  NMC Services

NMC services include remote status monitoring, coordination of network
outage troubleshooting efforts, and 24 hour per day/ 7 day per week
technical assistance to users for network problems.  The NMCs typically
work on backbone-related outages consisting of node and circuit problems,
and provide help in determining whether or not host connectivity problems
are network-related.

Your Host Administrator will contact the appropriate NMC for all network
hardware problems, hardware field service, problems with host interfaces,
or suspected node software problems.

6.2.2  NMC Contacts

   Title                 Telephone         Network Mailbox
   CONUS MMC             (202) 692-2268    DCA-MMC@DCA-EMS.ARPA
   European MMC          011 49 711 687 7766                               
   Pacific MMC           (808) 655-1255    DCAPACOP@HAWAII-EMH
   ARPANET MC            (617) 661-0100    CONTROL@BBN-UNIX.ARPA
                         (617) 497-3571
   Manager, NOC          (617) 497-3117    JBURKE@BBN-CCK.ARPA

6.2.3  NMC U.S. Mail Addresses

   CONUS MILNET Monitoring Center
   1300 North 17th Street, Suite 400
   Arlington, VA  22209          Wheeler AFB, HI  96854-5000
   Attn: Dan O'Brien             Attn: P-430

   European MILNET Monitoring Center
   BBNCC                         50 Moulton Street
   DCA-Europe                    Cambridge, MA  02238
   Box 1000                      Att: Jeffrey L. Burke
   APO NY 09131                  Network Operations Manager

6.3  Host Administrators, Node Site Coordinators, and Responsible Persons

Each host also has an appointed representative, the Host Administrator,
who serves as the technical and administrative contact for that host.  The
Host Administrator collaborates with the DDN PMO on security matters
involving hosts, interprets network policies as they apply to his/her host,
and decides which users may access the network (within the guidelines set
down by the DDN PMO).  The Host Administrator also authorizes user access
to the MILNET Terminal Access Controllers (TACs).  Finally, the Host
Administrator helps network users with technical problems involving hosts,
and works with the Network Information Center and the Network Monitoring
Centers to provide information and technical assistance.

Each PSN has a person associated with it known as the Node Site Coordinator
(NSC).  The Node Site Coordinator  is the local site representative having
access control, accountability and coordination responsibility for the
DDN-owned network hardware, software, and circuits located at the node

One person may serve in one or both roles; however, hosts or nodes may not
have more than one Host Administrator and one Node Site Coordinator.

DARPA has also appointed representatives called Responsible Persons  (RPs)
who authorize ARPANET TAC use.  Unlike other site personnel, the RP is not
associated with a node or specific host, but rather represents an
organization on behalf of DARPA. There are no RPs on the MILNET.

To find the names, addresses, telephone numbers, and network mailboxes for
these contacts, see Section 5.2.4.

6.4  Military Communications and Operations Command Contacts

Each military department has designated an organization to serve as the
primary DDN point-of-contact.  Requests for information or assistance
should be directed to the following organizations:
   Service                    Telephone         Autovon
   Air Force                  (205) 279-4074/3290                          
   Gunter AFS, AL 36224-6340

   Army                       (602) 538-6915    879-6915
   Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-5000

   Navy                       (202) 282-0381/2  292-0381
   Washington, DC 20390-5290

6.5  Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO)

The Defense Communications Agency, Defense Data Network Program Management
Office (DDN PMO) is responsible for overall management of the Defense Data
Network (DDN) and the ARPANET.

6.5.1  DDN PMO Contacts

 Code  Title                      Telephone[Area Code (703), Autovon 356-xx
 B641  Subscriber Req. & Integration Branch 285-5027                       
 B652  Packet Switch Operations Branch      285-5225                       
       Air Force                  285-5025
       Army                       285-5037
       Navy                       285-5137
       Other DoD Elements         285-5028
       ARPANET POC                285-5233  ARPANETMGR@DDN1.ARPA
 Postal Mail:
       Defense Communications Agency
       B652, Packet Switch Operations Branch
       Washington, DC 20305

6.6  Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) through its
Information Processing Techniques (IPTO) and Management Information Systems
(MIS) Offices sets policy for the ARPANET, and also administers the ARPANET
TAC access system.  IPTO heads the Internet Advisory Board and monitors the
work of its associated Working Groups.  DARPA is the research arm of the
DoD and supports basic research programs in a number of scientific

6.6.1  DARPA Contacts

   Title                      Telephone    Network Mailbox
   DARPA POC                  (202) 694-3049                               
                              (AV) 224-3049
   Internet Advisory Board    (617) 253-6003                               
   Postal Mail:
        Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
        Information Processing Techniques Office
        Attn: Lt. Col. Bob Baker
        1400 Wilson Boulevard
        Arlington, VA 22209-2389


These manuals and documents are either cited in this guide, or are helpful
in understanding the DDN.  When known, the ordering number is given for
items available from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC)[Order
from: DTIC, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314, (202) 274-7633.].
Documents marked (NIC) are available from the NIC.  When an online version
is available, the resident host and the online filename are given and
enclosed in brackets.

Cited References

1.  TAC Users' Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Communications Corporation,
     Cambridge, MA, 1985. [AD-A147 366] (NIC) [NETINFO:TAC-USER.DOC]

2.  DDN Subscriber Interface Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program
     Management Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC.
     1983.  [AD-A132 877/2] (NIC)

3.  DeLauer, R.D.  DoD Policy on Standardization of Host-to-Host Protocols
     for Data Communications Networks.  Office of the Secretary of Defense,
     Washington, DC, March 1982.  (NIC) [IEN:IEN-207.TXT]

4.  Carlucci, F. C. Autodin II Termination, Memorandum for Secretaries of
     the Military Departments, Deputy Secretary of Defense, Washington, DC,
     April 1982.

5.  Instructions for Network User Registration Drive [MILNET].  DDN Network
     Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, October 1983
     (being revised).

6.  ARPANET Access Control, User Manual for the User Database Tool.
     Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency, Arlington, VA, July 1984.

Auxiliary User Documentation

DEC-20 User's Manual.  Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA, 1982.

INFOMAIL User Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, 1982.

Keene.  MINET INFOMAIL Primer.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge,
     MA, 1983.

Keene.  MINET User Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA,

Mooers, Charlotte.  The HERMES Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., 
     Cambridge, MA, 1982.

General references

Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.  A History of the ARPANET: the First Decade.
     Report No. 4799, Defense Advanced Research Agency, Arlington, VA,
     1981.  [AD-A1115 440].

Cashin, J.   ARPANET Good Base for New DoD Data Network.  Software News,
     vol. 4, 22-3 (March 1984).

Cerf, V. and Lyons, R.   Military Requirements for Packet-Switched Networks
     and Their Implications for Protocol Standardization.  Computer
     Networks, vol. 7, no. 5, 293-306 (October 1983).

Chou, W. (Ed.).  Computer Communications.  Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
     Cliffs, NJ, 1983.

DDN Defense Data Network Brochure.  Defense Data Network, Program
     Management Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC,
     1984.  (NIC)

DDN Directory.  DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo
     Park, CA, 1984.  [AD-A148 213] (NIC) $10.00 prepaid.

DDN Protocol Handbook, 3 volumes.  DDN Network Information Center, Menlo
     Park, CA.  1985. (NIC) $110.00 prepaid.

DDN Subscriber Security Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program Management
     Office, Defense Communications Agency, Washington, DC.  1983.
     [AD-A152 524] (NIC)

Hinden, R., Haverty, J. and Sheltzer, A.   The DARPA Internet:
     Interconnecting Heterogenous Computer Networks with Gateways.
     Computer, vol. 16, no. 9, 38-48 (September 1983).

Kleinrock, L.   Value-Added Networks (VANS) Come of Age.  MIS Week, vol.
     4, no. 5, 29 (2 February 1983).

Newell, A. and Sproull, R. F.   Computer Networks: Prospects for
     Scientists.  Science, vol. 215, 843-852 (12 February 1982).

TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide.  DDN Network Information Center,
     $10.00 prepaid.

Uhlig, R. P.   Computer Message Systems.  Elsevier, New York, NY, 1981.

Vallee, J.   Computer Message Systems.  McGraw-Hill Publications, New York,
     NY, 1984.

Wallich, P.   Putting It Together.  IEEE Spectrum vol. 20, no. 11, 105-109
     (November 1983).


acoustic coupler  A type of modem which converts digital signals into sound
                  for transmission through telephone lines, and performs
                  the reverse operation when receiving such signals.
                  Acoustic couplers generally have cups into which the
                  telephone handset is placed to make the connection.

AMC               ARPANET Network Monitoring Center, located at BBNCC,
                  Cambridge, MA.

Anonymous Login Convention
                  Standard username (\anonymous") and password (\guest")
                  which allows login within FTP for the purpose of
                  retrieving an unprotected file.

ARPA              See DARPA.

ARPANET           Packet-switched network developed by the Defense Advanced
                  Research Projects Agency.

backbone          The nodes (PSNs), TACs, and the telephone lines
                  connecting them, forming the core of the DDN.

BBNCC             Bolt Beranek and Newman Communications Corporation; a
                  major hardware and software developer for the DDN, and
                  early contributor to the development of the DDN.

BPS               Bits per second is the unit used for measuring line
                  speed, the number of information units transmitted per

case dependent    Software differentiation between upper and lower case

circuit-switched  A type of network connection which establishes a
                  continuous electrical connection between calling and
                  called users for their exclusive use until the connection
                  is released.

DARPA             Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

DCA               Defense Communications Agency.

DDN               Defense Data Network, the DoD long-haul packet-switched
                  computer communications network which includes the MILNET
                  and the ARPANET as two of its subnetworks.

DDN PMO           Defense Data Network Program Management Office.

DoD               Department of Defense.

DTIC              Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station,
                  Alexandria, VA 22314, a depository for many DoD technical

FTP               File Transfer Protocol, used to copy files across the

gateway           Computer which interconnects networks.

Handle            Unique character string identifier assigned to each entry
                  in the NIC WHOIS database.

HERMES            Electronic mail program developed at BBNCC for DARPA.

host              Computer connected to a PSN on the DDN.

hostname          Name which officially identifies each computer attached
                  to the DDN.

IMP               Interface Message Processor; see PSN.

INFOMAIL          Electronic mail program developed by BBNCC.

Internetwork      A network, such as the DDN, that connects other networks.

Internet Protocol Standard that allows dissimilar hosts to connect to each
                  other through the DDN.

IPTO              Information Processing Techniques Office, the DARPA
                  office that developed and built the ARPANET.

IWG               Internet Working Group; a DARPA-sponsored research team
                  involved in the design and implementation of internet

LAN               Local Area Network; network of directly connected
                  machines usually located within 10 miles of each other.

long-haul net     Network spanning long geographic distances, usually
                  connected by telephone lines or satellite radio links.

MH                Rand Corporation Mail Handling program for electronic

MIL STD           Military Standard; official military version of a

MILNET            The DDN unclassified operational military network.

MM                Electronic mail program developed at SRI International.

modem             Device which converts digital signals into analog signals
                  (and back) for transmission over telephone lines
                  (modulator and demodulator).

NIC/Query         General information program on SRI-NIC.

NIC               DDN Network Information Center, located at SRI
                  Menlo Park, CA.

NICNAME           See \WHOIS".

NMC               Network Monitoring Center; the ARPANET NMC is located at
                  BBNCC (Cambridge, MA) and the MILNET NMC is located in
                  Washington, DC.  Others are located in Europe and Hawaii.

node              Packet switch; a PSN.

NSC               Node Site Coordinator; local DDN contact responsible for
                  node or TAC equipment.

NTIS              National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department
                  of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22151, (703) 487-4650,
                  national depository for unclassified technical documents.

operating system  Software that supervises and controls tasks on a

packet-switching  Data transmission process, utilizing addressed packets,
                  whereby a channel is occupied only for the duration of
                  the packet transmission.

OSD               Office of the Secretary of Defense.

PMO               See DDN PMO.

POC               Point Of Contact

protocol          Technical specifications which govern the format and
                  timing of information exchange between two communicating
                  software processes.

PSN               Packet Switch Node; a store-and-forward packet switch
                  (formerly called an IMP).

REGISTRAR         Mailbox at NIC for DDN user registration additions and

RFC               Request For Comments; technical note series describing
                  DARPA and DDN research and development, particularly in
                  the areas of protocol design and internetworking.

RP                Responsible Person; person in charge of ARPANET TAC
                  Registration for an organization.

SIG               Special Interest Group; online mailing group whose
                  members exchange information on a particular topic of

site              Organization or facility where a host is located.

SMTP              Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

socket            Logical address of a communications access point to a
                  specific device or program on a host.

SRI-NIC           DDN Network Information Center host located at SRI; the
                  general information computer for the DDN.

SRI               SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, location of the DDN
                  Network Information Center and early contributor to the
                  development of the DDN.

TAC               Terminal Access Controller; special type of host attached
                  to a PSN that allows direct terminal access to the DDN

TAC Access Code   Password assigned to MILNET TAC users for TAC login.

TAC Userid        Alphanumeric character string that identifies a TAC user
                  upon TAC login.

TACACS            TAC Access Control System; password system that limits
                  use of TACs to authorized users.

TACNEWS           NIC program for reading DDN Newsletters and Bulletins and
                  other items.

TCP/IP            Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; DoD
                  standard network protocols.

TELNET            Protocol for opening a transparent connection to a
                  distant host.

terminal          Communication device that lets a user send information to
                  a computer by typing on a keyboard, and prints responses
                  from the computer on paper or a screen.

TIP               Terminal Interface Processor; predecessor of the TAC,
                  serving a similar function.  See TAC.

TOPS20            Digital Equipment Corporation proprietary operating
                  system which runs on the DEC 20 series of machines.

UDB               User Database Tool for registering for ARPANET TAC

UNIX              An AT& T Bell Laboratories proprietary operating system
                  which runs on large and small computers.

USC-ISIC          Machine on which the ARPANET TAC User Database Tool (UDB)
                  is located.

WHOIS             NIC program used to access the NIC electronic "white
                  pages" database.


A unique aspect of the network are its many online Special Interest Groups
(SIGs), which discuss topics ranging from Artificial Intelligence to Zenith
PCs.  Anyone can contribute to a SIG by simply sending mail, and they are a
good way for a new user to learn more about the network.  Information on
network SIGS can be found in a file nicknamed the "List-of-Lists", a master
list of SIGS with a brief description of each group.

For users who have never done a file transfer before, this is a perfect
first opportunity.  The List-of-Lists may be FTPed from the SRI-NIC host by
logging in with USERID = "anonymous" and PASSWORD = "guest" and using the

Note that many individual hosts do mail redistribution for their users,
i.e., mailing list messages or digests are delivered once to one local
mailbox, then they are announced or forwarded to a list of interested local
users.  Mail redistribution eliminates the need for the local mailer to
process myriad copies of the same message going to different users and so
conserves local computer resources.  Before adding your name to a SIG
distribution list, ask your Host Administrator or User Representative if
SIG or digest mail is redistributed on your host or posted in a centralized
place to be read by all local users.

With the network information sources and contacts just outlined, and the
tools introduced in the previous section, you are now ready to explore the
network on your own.

              BY NETWORK USERS

These are some of the most-commonly asked questions and representative
answers selected from mail the NIC receives.  (See Sections 6.1.2, 6.1.3
for NIC network and postal addresses.)

Q:   I want to send mail to my colleague, John Smith.  What is his network

A:   The NIC provides an online program called "WHOIS" or "NICNAME", which
     contains the names, addresses, phone numbers, and online mailboxes of
     network users.  Since some Host Administrators install this program on
     their host, you should ask your host representative if it is available
     locally.  Alternatively, you may make a TELNET connection to SRI-NIC
     and use the WHOIS program running on our host.  (Login to SRI-NIC is
     not required.)

Q:   I am interested in joining special interest groups on the IBM and
     Macintosh personal computers.  How can I do this?

A:   FTP a file called NETINFO:INTEREST-GROUPS.TXT from SRI-NIC.  It is a
     compendium of mailing lists on the network.  The Interest Groups list
     describes the list INFO-IBMPC and INFO-MAC.  Send requests to be added
     to these lists to INFO-IBMPC-REQUEST@USC-ISIB.ARPA and to
     INFO-MAC-REQUEST@SUMEX-AIM.ARPA, giving your name and network mailbox.

Q:   There are a number of old RFC documents I would like to obtain,
     specifically RFCs: 123, 231, and 312.  They don't appear to be online
     at the NIC.  Could you arrange to get copies for me?  I prefer online
     copies if you have them.

A:   Many of the older RFCs have never been online.  Hardcopies of RFCs can
     be ordered from the NIC.  There is a $5.00 copying charge for each RFC
     under 100 pages, and a $10.00 copying charge for each RFC over 100
     pages.  Checks or purchase orders, made payable to SRI International,
     should be sent to the NIC.

Q:   I am on a host on MILNET, but want to FTP a file from a host on
     ARPANET.  I've heard that there are restrictions on crossing networks?
     What are they?

A:   As of this writing, most services (i.e. Mail, FTP, and TELNET) are
     open between the two networks.  At some as yet unspecified time,
     specific host-to-host restrictions will be applied.  Mail, however,
     will remain unrestricted.

Q:   I have a colleague at Anystate University; can he/she get on the DDN?

A:   Subscribers to the network must be working on a DoD contract that
     requires network access, and be sponsored by a government agency.  If
     your colleague doesn't meet this requirement, he or she might explore
     the possibility of using another network, such as CSNET, which can
     exchange mail with the DDN.

Q:   This TAC phone number doesn't work.  What should I do?

A:   The Network Information Center can test the TAC from our site to
     determine whether the problem is in the TAC or relates to your
     equipment or procedure.  If the problem is the TAC, we can give you
     phone numbers for other TACs.

Q:   Can I get a printout of the WHOIS database of DDN users?

A:   The 1984 edition of the DDN Directory, succeeds the 1982 ARPANET
     Directory and is available for purchase. To obtain a copy, send your
     check, money order, or purchase order for $10.00 to: DDN Network
     Information Center, Room EJ291, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA
     94025.  We do not distribute, or otherwise make available,
     machine-readable copies of the WHOIS database.


Defense Data Network Program Management Office (DDN PMO)

 Code  Office                     Telephone[Area Code (703), Autovon 356-xx
 B641  Subscriber Req. & Integration Branch 285-5027                       
 B652  Packet Switch Operations Branch      285-5225                       
       Air Force                  285-5025
       Army                       285-5037
       Navy                       285-5137
       Other DoD Elements         285-5028
       ARPANET POC                285-5233
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

 Office                  Telephone          Network Mailbox
 DARPA POC               (202) 694-3049     BAKER@USC-ISI.ARPA
                         (AV) 224-3049
Network Information Center (NIC)

 Information                      Telephone
 (Mon - Fri, 7 am - 4 pm, PST)    (800) 235-3155
 Office                                    Network Mailboxes
 General user assistance and feedback                                      
 User registration and WHOIS updates                                       
 Hostname changes and updates              HOSTMASTER@SRI-NIC.ARPA
 SRI-NIC computer operations               ACTION@SRI-NIC.ARPA
 Comments on NIC publications and services                                 
 Manager, NIC                              FEINLER@SRI-NIC.ARPA
Network Monitoring Centers (NMC)

 Office                  Telephone          Network Mailbox
 CONUS MMC               (202) 692-2268     DCA-MMC@DCA-EMS.ARPA
 European MMC            011 49 711 687 7766                               
 Pacific MMC             (808) 655-1255     DCAPACOP@HAWAII-EMH.ARPA
 ARPANET MC              (617) 661-0100     CONTROL@BBN-UNIX.ARPA
                         (617) 497-3571
 Manager, NOC            (617) 497-3117     JBURKE@BBN-UNIX.ARPA


Access Code   7, 11
Acoustic coupler   8
AMC   25
   definition of   5
ARPANET Information Brochure   25
ARPANET TAC Access   11

Circuit-switched network   5
CMMC   25
Code ownership   20
Code, commercial use   20
Communication network   6

DARPA Contacts   27
DDN   1, 5, 35
   Directory   25, 35
   Network Information Center
        (NIC)   23
   New User Guide, The   25
   PMO Contacts   27
   Program Management Office
        (PMO)   6, 23, 27
   Protocol Handbook   25
   Protocols   13
Defense Data Network
   Program Management Office   27
Dial-up   8
   Modem   8
   terminal   5, 7
Digests   33
Directory of files, FTPing   17
Documents, NIC   25

EMMC   25
Etiquette, network   20

File protection   20
File Transfer Protocol   14
Files   16
FTP   14, 15, 16, 17, 35

Gateway   7

Hard-wired terminal   5, 7
Hardwired TAC Connection   8
Host Address   7
Host Administrator   11, 19, 26
Host computer   5
Hostname   7

LAN   5, 7
List-of-Lists   33
Local Area Network   7, 5

   electronic   13
   guidelines   20
   INFOMAIL   13
   Lists, mailing   33
   MM   14
   Problems   35
   UNIX   13
   definition of   6
   TAC access   11
   TAC user   11

   Access   11
   address   13
   Connection   6
   Contacts   37
   Information Center (NIC)   26,
   mailboxes   13
   Monitoring Center (NMC)   26,
        23, 25
   Registration   11
   Service Centers   23
   tools   13
Network Monitoring Center
   ARPANET   25
   Europe   25
   MILNET   25
   Pacific area   25
Network, definition of   5
NIC Handle   18
NIC   23
   Documents   25
   General Reference Services
   Network Services   17
   NIC/Query   13
   Online Contacts   24
   toll-free number   24
   WHOIS Database   11
NMC   25
   Contacts   25
Node Site Coordinator
   definition of   26
NSC   26

Online Reference Files   19

Packet-switched network   5
Passwords   20
PCs   8
Personal Computers   8
Plagiarism   20
PMMC   25
Protocols   5
PSN   5, 7

Questions Commonly Asked   35

Registration   11
   Template   11
Responsible Persons   11, 19, 26
RFC Index   20
RFCs   35
RP   11, 19, 26

   by Handle   18
   by Hostname   18
   by node name   18
   by Partial Name   18
   by TAC name   18
   NIC General Reference   24
   NMC   25
Special Interest Groups   33, 35

   Access   11
   access card   11
   login   8
   login problems   8
   phones   19
   Registration   11
TACNEWS   13, 19
TELNET   7, 17
   to UDB   17
Terminal Access Controller (TAC)

Userid   7, 11


                              List of Figures

 Figure 2-1:   Methods of Accessing the Network                           5
 Figure 2-2:   Direct Connection to a Remote Host                         5
 Figure 2-3:   Projected Expansion of the DDN                             6
 Figure 2-4:   DDN PMO Organization Chart                                 6
 Figure 3-1:   Host Connection to a Remote Host                           7
 Figure 3-2:   TAC Connection to a Remote Host                            7
 Figure 3-3:   Gateway Connection to a Remote Host                        7
 Figure 3-4:   Sample Host Name and Host Address                          8
 Figure 4-1:   DDN User Registration Template                            11