perm filename UNI1.V[1,VDS] blob sn#299715
filedate 1977-03-15 generic text, type C, neo UTF8
COMMENT ⊗ VALID 00011 PAGES
C REC PAGE DESCRIPTION
C00003 00002 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20
C00004 00003 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CSPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY
C00007 00004 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CSPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY (cont.)
C00010 00005 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F2\CUNIMATION
C00021 00006 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CCONTROL SYSTEM
C00029 00007 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CSOFTWARE, TEACHING, PLAYBACK
C00035 00008 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CPUMA SYSTEM-MILESTONE CHART
C00037 00009 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CFEATURES OF THE UNIMATION (FORMELY VICARM,INC.)SYSTEM
C00040 00010 \|\\M1BDR30\M2SIGN57\M3NGR25\M4NGR20\F1\CPUMA SYSTEM PROJECTED MANUFACTURING COSTS
C00042 00011 \CPROJECTED MANUFACTURING COSTS (CONT).
\F1\CTECHNICAL PROPOSAL AND BID
\CIn response to General Motors Specifications for their
\CPUMA SYSTEM-Manipulator and Controls
\CDated January 17,1977
Shoulder Height- 610 mm
Upper Arm link length- 400 mm
Forearm link length- 400 mm
Wrist envelope diameter- 80 mm
Manipulator weight- 40kg max.
Arm swing range- 270 deg. min.
Shoulder rotation- 180 deg. min.
Elbow rotation- 240 deg. min.
Wrist bend- 220 deg. min.
Wrist rotate- 360 deg. min.
Wrist roll (optional axis)- 360 deg. min.
Arm swing- 135 deg/sec
Arm shoulder and elbow rotate
sufficient to meet vertical and
horizontal slew rate specs. of 500 and 1000 mm/sec
Wrist bend- 360 deg/sec
Wrist rotate- 360 deg/sec
Wrist roll (opt.)- 360 deg/sec
All motions designed for critical or overdamped motion.
1G maximum part center acceleration with maximum load.
Repeatability of playback of "place to teach" motions- within .1mm, assumming
repeating motion with same load and conditions.
Max load capacity- 3.5 kg. including gripper and fittings.
Max force capacity- 6 kg. min. in any direction.
Drive system- D.C. Electric Motors.Totally internal, easily accessable.
Power Consumption- 500 watts peak. (from controller power supply).
Feedback devices- Optical Incremental Encoders on each motor shaft.
Tachometers as required.
Mounting- Base mounted with 4 bolts and alignment pins.
Mounting Fixture- Allows conveyor qide mounting, also holds electronics.
\|\\M1BDR30;\M2SIGN57;\M3NGR25;\M4NGR20;\F1\CSPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY (cont.)
Power amplifiers- D.C. type linear and switching amplifiers.
Error summing- Digital, for no drift or offset errors.
Motion limit stops- Mechanical, Electrical and Software limits on all joints
Power sequencing- Solid State
Control sequencing- FET switches and software control.
Weight- 40kg. max including power supply, and computer.
Size- 18"W x 18"D x15"H. Enclosed, fan cooled box
on slides with handles.
Connections- All quick connect type plugs to GM specs.
Power Reqd.- 115/230VAC- 700 watts max.
Computer- DEC, LSI-11 computer
Memory- PROM, mos RAM
Capacity- Minimum of 256 program steps total, expandable.
External Controls- Interfaces to TTL or 110 VAC inputs or outputs
minimum of 8 each.
Storage- Cassette or PROM permanent backup program storage.
Repeating- Software implemented conditional branching.
Collision Protection- Software, and electronic trajectory deviation
sensing and shutdown. External switch outputs.
Power Failure- Failsafe type brakes on shoulder and elbow joints
to support arm in case of power failure.
Memory battery backup power supply for 1 hr.
SOFTWARE AND TEACHING
Software type- High level, similar to VAL language.
Input/Output- Assignable function button box. With
optional 3 axis joystick.
Important Software Features- Point to point mode or continuous path mode
Speed control on a motion by motion basis.
Provision of correcting or updating positions.
Allows a`dition, deletions,and changes of steps or
groups of steps.
Incremental teach mode, in various coordinate
Many more extras as a subset of VAL language.
\F1\CPUMA SYSTEM PROPOSAL
\CMechanical System Design
Unimation, Inc. proposes to develop an all electric 5 axis
(optionally 6-axis) anthropomorphic configuration manipulator to meet the
General Motors Corp. PUMA
system requirements. We have chosen an equal link length, all parallel or
normal axis configuration as this results in the maximum working volume
with minimum manipulator mass and work space intrusion.
The dimensions of the links have been chosen to allow the
manipulator to reach all points in the primary work area and nearly all of
the overall working volume specified in the Functional Requirements
Section of the RFQ. As an added feature of this configuration, large
additional working volumes are also available outside the defined regions.
Furthermore, multiple solutions (different arm geometries resulting in the
same terminal point), allow the arm to reach most points in different
configurations, a definite advantage when obstacles must be avoided while
moving or while picking or placing.
Direct current, permanent magnet electric motors will be used on
all axes. These drive units will be integrated power-feedback units, all
having motor, position encoder, tachometer, and brake (joints 1,2,3 only)
in one unit, on a single common shaft. The drive units will be placed for
easy accessability and will generally be coupled by tubular, high speed
extension shafts to suitable gearing located at each joint.
By placing all motors away from each joint, AND away from any
critical length determining structure, effects of motor heating on
structural dimensions will be minimized. In addition, partial mass balancing will
significantly reduce steady state power requirements.
The drive units for joints 1,2,3 (shoulder and elbow) will be
nearly identical. Access to these units will be from the back of the arm
structure, by merely removing protective covers. This will allow quick
and easy removal of an entire drive unit. These three axis drives will
also be fitted with common shaft mounted failsafe brakes to support the
manipulator in the event of power failure, and when shut down.
The wrist degrees of freedom will consist of a 2 or 3 axis
differential unit, driven by electric drive units mounted near the elbow.
These electric drive units will each consist of a high performance torque
motor, coupled by a torque tube type shaft to the wrist gearing. The 2
and 3 axis wrists will not be the same, but will be interchangeable and
have the same link lengths and external dimensions. As an aid to
efficient computer control of this manipulator, the wrist geometry will
feature intersecting and perpendicular axes.
The manipulator structure will be characterized by large section,
thin wall, tubular, formed and seamed high strength sheet aluminum shells,
anodized for scratch and corrosion resistance. Gearboxes, and bearing
housings will be manufactured from n.c. machined aluminum plate and bar,
and Almag castings. All power train gearing will be of heat treated,
alloy steel gears operating in sealed and shielded grease packed housings.
Large diameter (e.g.- an 11 inch diameter swing motion drive gear), high
ratio gearing will maximize drive stiffness and minimize backlash and gear
The tubular monocoque type manipulator structure will fully
contain all wires, drives, plumbing, etc. Large section bearings and
tubular shafts at each joint will act as interjoint conduits. Optional
forced air cooling will intake air at the "head" and pressurize the arm.
Exhaust will be out past and through the drive motors and out through the
drive unit protective, inspection and maintainance covers.
A separate air line and integral solenoind valve assembly will
provide a switched pressure or vacuum source out near the wrist for
control or operation of a terminal effector or other accessories.
Internal valve placement, even on a manipulator as small as this,
minimizes delay and improves controllability of pneumatic grippers, etc.
The motors, drives and structure will all be selected and designed
to produces a manipulator with 3.5kg load capacity and typically 1g part
center acceleration. Emphasis will be placed on a rigid, lightweight
design. Unimation Inc. already has experience with manipulators having
accelerations in excess of 4g's, and natural frequencies of over 50hz.
the base bolts will hold the entire manipulator securely in place on its
mounting structure. Base mounted precision placed dowel pins will allow
repeated accurate replacement of the manipulator. The mounting structure
will also be the manipulator to conveyor attaching structure.
By applying construction and design approaches outlined above, the
entire manipulator weight, less controller, will be under 40kg.
To meet repeatability requirements, incremental rotary optical
encoders have been selected. These non-contacting, glass disk devices,
with bi-directional counting tracks AND zero references will be mounted on
the drive motor shafts. On a small arm, high performance is contingent on
high motor torque to weight and torque to inertia ratios. Small, shaft
mounted encoder disks have lower moments of inertia than most small
resolvers or other high resolution position transducers. For cost, life
and stability reasons, the incremental encoder represents a best choice at
the present time. Laser based interferometric measurements may become
realistic in the future, but not within the time frame of this project.
Calibration on power turn on will be accomplished in software by
slowly driving all joints to electrical reference stops and initializing
the encoder pulse counters. In the event of arm motion constraints
preventing this initialization procedure, an optional analog coarse
position reference unit can be made available. This will enable almost
immediate initialization with only small arm search motion required. In
motion error checking will occur on a continuous basis using the once per
turn zero reference track and the count electronics carry logic.
To prevent accidental runaway arm motion, three types of joint travel
limit stops will be employed. Mechanical, electrical, and software stops will
constrain arm motion to user selectable ranges. This is an essential safety feature
when operating side by side with humans.\.
\J We have selected the Digital Equipment Corporation LSI-11 computer
to control the manipulator. This computer has been designed by DEC to be
used in industrial control applications where both data handling programs
and arithmetic computation routines must be performed. General
Motors Corporation currently utilizes numerous PDP-11 series computers
which have similar hardware and are software compatible with this machine.
The manipulator and hardware controller are interfaced to the
LSI-11 using standard interface cards. These cards will also interface
with almost any number of optically isolated 110VAC and/or TTL inputs or
outputs, to be monitored or controlled by the computer, on an interrupt or
continuous sample basis.
The control software, as currently implemented by Unimation -West
Coast Group (formely Vicarm, Inc.) is sophisticated. We propose to use a
modified form of this software, implemented in PROM(Programmable Read Only
Memory) as the control program for this system. Actual motion programs
will normally be implemented in mos RAM (Random Access Memory) which will
be supplied for recording and current storage of manipualtor programs. An
optional PROM board with software controlled on board writing capability
will be available for more permanent storage of more fully debugged, long
term useage type programs. Program backup will also be provided by an
optional tape (Phillips type) cassette unit, and standby 1 hr. minimum
battery supply (memory only) in case of short term power outages.
Each manipulator axis will have one interchangeable servo card
associated with it. This card will contain all the logic and electronics
to close the position (encoder), velocity (tachometer), and current( power
amplifiers are current mode rather than voltage mode for greater
versatility and safety when using permanent magnet torque motors) loops
under computer control. These servo cards will primarily utilize digital
logic elements with a miminum of analog components to minimize long term
drift and compensation adjustments.
All manipulator motions will be trajectory controlled. This means
that computer control of the manipulator is continuous and bi-directional.
Excessive motor currents, large deviation from planned path, or abnormal
operating conditions will result in an immediate halt, as in the case of
hitting an obstacle, jamming, gripper malfunction, excessive time to
complete motion, etc.
The control computer, power supply, motor controller, power
amplifiers, brake drivers, encoder boards, etc. will be housed in one
unit, approximately 18"W x18"D x 15"H intended to be mounted just below
the manipulator in the manipulator attaching structure. Connectors for AC
power, external signals, the manipulator cable, the teach/programming
unit, and cassette tapeloading unit will be on the front panel along with
several status indicators and an emergency shut down button.
mounted, sealed box with handles and drawer slide supports would be a
typical mounting configuration, allowing quick removal and replacement of
the entire unit. The external support frame for this box will also be the
manipulator to conveyor attaching structure.
Estimated maximum weight of this unit will be 40kg.
The controller is universal, as are the manipulators. Thus
manipulators and controllers could be switched or replaced independently
with no problems of interchangeability. Any small differences between
manipulators, such as tolerances in link lengths, offsets, mass
differences, etc. would be corrected in a software calibration table and
list of characteristics particular to each manipulator, like a curriculum-
vitae. In the event of a manipulator change, these constants would also
have to be changed in the programs. Re-programming would NOT be
necessary, but occaisional point touch up- may be required if these
constants are not sufficiently accurate. It is presentlq unreasonable to
suggest that all manipulators will be absolutely interchangeable without
calibration changes, as this would require extreme manufacturing
tolerances and a costly lEvel of assembly accupacy. It is also difficult
to see, that even if this were possible, that such a condition could be
maintained throughout the life of such a manipulator.\.
\|\\M1BDR30;\M2SIGN57;\M3NGR25;\M4NGR20;\F1\CSOFTWARE, TEACHING, PLAYBACK
\J The VAL language as currently offered by Unimation as part of
their complete system already contains many of the essential features of
the RFQ. For this new system the existing software will be upgraded to
employ a button box, with optional 3-axis joystick teach unit as the basic
low cost arm-computer-human interface.
As the pRimary mode for most
precision motion and placement tasks, instruction will be done entirely
from the teach box. The arm will be moveable in either joint axes (arm)
coordinates, world (cartesian) coordinates, or hand (like flying and
airplane) coordinates. An increment button would allow small (one
resolution element) increments, or larger ones (typically 10 elements)
each time the button is pushed. Normal velocity based position mode would
also be available. Although the VAL language currently utilizes a
teletype or video display unit input/output device for writing high level, English
language instruction motion programs, the "assembly line"versIon o@_@AiQ%f~∃Y¬]OkC≥JAo←ld more likely use a simplified set of these instructions
implemented on a limited number of software redefinable instruction keys.
In the second mode of programming, the unpowered and limp arm
would be physically moved by hand from point to point. A record button
would record precision points on command or at timed or discrete spacial
intervals in automatic (continuous path) mode. This method of programming
is possible because of the extremely light weight and high drive
efficiency of the manipulator.
Because the proposed VAL type software is so powerful, the ability
to quickly change teaching coordinate frames is practical and represents a
natural extension of existing computer capabilities rather than a hard
earned special feature.
The VAL software currently employs a trajectory generator which
computes trajectories for all manipulator motions. This current software
generates controlled, smooth polynomial interpolated joint motion
trajectories (continuous path control) between end points. Speed and
position of all joints is continuously and accurately controlled
throughout each entire motion. Straight line vector motions in any
direction, and hand coordinate approaches and departs are other already
built-in features of this software. All these instructions currently
feature speed control allowing speeding up or slowing down of all motions
on a motion by motion basis.
Program update, touch-up, step addition, or deletion can all be provided off
line or on line, as all programs and program parts are stored in computer memory as linked
instruction lists. This allows easy program editing, as required.
Because so many of the existing VAL language instructions meet the
software requirements of this system, a copy of the current VAL language
is included with this proposal. In addition, an EXISTING pertainant feature
summary is also included. In fact, the only feature NOT shown in the
current instruction set- Conditional Branching- has already been coded
in preliminary form. The structure of the software is such as to make this
a very easy to implement feature.
By using a computer a bit larger than the minimum possible we are
able to offer you these existing capabilities, and potential growth features
at very little increased unit cost. We find that it has been unwise to
milk a small 8-bit microprocessor, when an admirably suitable 16 bit
machine like the LSI-11 offers such a greatly increased capability both in
processing ability and ease of programming.\.
\|\\M1BDR30;\M2SIGN57;\M3NGR25;\M4NGR20;\F1\CPUMA SYSTEM-MILESTONE CHART
TASK MONTHS DURING WHICH TOTAL MAN MONTHS
Mechanical Design Layout- 1 .5
Detail Mechanical Design- 1-4 4
Build and Debug Proto #1- 2-6 2
Build and Debug Proto #2- 2-8 2
Controller Hardware Layout- 1 .5
Control Detail Design(Electronic)- 1-3 2
Build Controller #1- 2-6 1.5
Build Controller #2- 2-8 1
Software Concept Development- 1 .5
Operating Software- 2-5 3
Teaching Software- 3-7 3
Debugging Software- 4-8 1
System Assy #1 Proto- 6-7 1.5
System Assy #2 Proto- 8-9 1
Performance Tests #1- 8 1
Delivery #1- 9
#2 Revisions- 8-10 1.5
Delivery #2- 11
Hardware,Maint.,Assy. Doc.- 10-12 2
Software Documentation- 7-10 .5
Total- 28.5 man months
Each Proto Arm System- $12,000
Total Material Costs- $24,000
Additional Costs- $20,000 for development electronics and computer hardware and software.
\|\\M1BDR30;\M2SIGN57;\M3NGR25;\M4NGR20;\F1\CFEATURES OF THE UNIMATION (FORMELY VICARM,INC.)SYSTEM
\CWHICH CLOSELY SATISFY THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PUMA RFQ.
All of the following features currently exist and have been demonstrated and
delivered to customers.
1)Teaching in axis and world coordinates- TRANS,HERE, WHERE commands
2)Trajectory controlled motion- ability to move
in straight lines in ANY direction.- DRAW command
3)Trajectory controlled motion- ability to move
along polynomial or linear interpolated
trajectories-controlled path motion- MOVE command
4)Point to point motion- GO command
5)Two levels of precision- COARSE command
6)Hand coordinate motions, useful for
insertion and removal tasks.- APPRO and DEPART commands
7)Ability to vary speed on an instruction
by instruction basis.- SPEED command
8)Multiple program selection.- EXEC command
9)Looping features-starting at arbitrary
points in program.- EXEC command
10)Ability to insert or delete instructions- I and D commands
11)Emergency Halt and Proceed Feature.- Return and P commands
12)Saving of Programs and Taught Points.- PUNCHP and PUNCHT commands
13)Touch-up of points.- TRANS, HERE, Change? instructions
14)Stop on Error or obstacle feature.- GRASP and Timeout features
15)Crash protection-halt in case of
deviation from trajectory- Timeout feature
16)Software limit stops-manipulator will not
try to go where it can't.- Req'd arm solution doesnt exist.
17)Universal software-will run any arm WITHOUT
any revisions, just change calibration and
geometry constants- easily done- Transform concept stores data as
cartesian and Euler coordinates.
\|\\M1BDR30;\M2SIGN57;\M3NGR25;\M4NGR20;\F1\CPUMA SYSTEM PROJECTED MANUFACTURING COSTS
Assumes batches of 100 systems. No pattern or tooling costs or amortization included.
No engineering or materials overhead included. Labor priced at $15/hr.
Prices are per EACH system.
Structure- Base and Column- $250
Head Unit- $100
Covers an Mounts- $ 75
Wire Harnesses- $100
Misc.- $ 50
Gearing and Housings-
Brakes- $ 50
Gearing-12 hrs. $180
Wiring-10 hrs. $150
Manipulator Total- $3755
\CPROJECTED MANUFACTURING COSTS (CONT).
DEC LSI-11- $600
Interface Cards- $600
Power Supply- $100
Connectors- $ 50
Power Amplifiers- $200
Pre-Amps, Servo Cards- $600
Encoder Card- $150
Power Supply- $200
Switches, Hardware- $100
Labor-Wiring and Assy.-40 hrs. $600
Computer and Controlher Total- $4050
Teach Unit(one per 3 arms)- $200
Software, PROMs and programming- $250
Checkout and Test-30 hrs. $450
TOTAL FOR COMPLETE SYSTEM.- ******* $8705 *******
Extra for Cassette Unit- $60
Deduct for 5-Axis system- $500